Enterolactone

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Enterolactone
Enterolactone.png
Identifiers
Abbreviations ENL
CAS number 78473-71-9 YesY
PubChem 10685477
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C18H18O4
Molar mass 298.33 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Enterolactone is a mammalian lignan formed by the action of intestinal bacteria from plant lignan precursors present in the diet.

Sources[edit]

Many dietary plant lignans, such as secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol and sesamin, can be metabolized by gut microbes to enterolactone.[1][2][3] In edible plants lignans are bound to the fiber fraction and therefore fiber-rich food products, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits and berries, are generally good sources of lignans and enterolactone. The richest known dietary sources of enterolactone precursors are flaxseed and sesame seed. [4][5] [6] Since enterolactone is produced by specific species of gut microbiota, the capacity to produce it varies between people. [7] Antibiotic treatments can abolish the capacity to produce enterolactone. It may take up to a year before enterolactone production is restored. [8] [9]

Health effects[edit]

Enterolactone is suggested to possess beneficial health effects in humans. In epidemiological studies lower concentrations of enterolactone have been observed in breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls, which may suggest that enterolactone is anti-carcinogenic. Enterolactone and lignans may also be protective of cardiovascular disease. [10] [11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lampe JW (2003). "Isoflavonoid and lignan phytoestrogens as dietary biomarkers". J Nutr 133 (Suppl 3): 956S–964S. PMID 12612182. 
  2. ^ Peñalvo JL, Heinonen SM, Aura AM, Adlercreutz H (May 2005). "Dietary sesamin is converted to enterolactone in humans". J. Nutr. 135 (5): 1056–1062. PMID 15867281. 
  3. ^ Heinonen, S; Nurmi, T; Liukkonen, K; Poutanen, K; Wähälä, K; Deyama, T; Nishibe, S; Adlercreutz, H (2001). "In vitro metabolism of plant lignans: New precursors of mammalian lignans enterolactone and enterodiol". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 49 (7): 3178–86. PMID 11453749.  edit
  4. ^ Milder, I. E.; Arts, I. C.; Van De Putte, B; Venema, D. P.; Hollman, P. C. (2005). "Lignan contents of Dutch plant foods: A database including lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol". The British journal of nutrition 93 (3): 393–402. doi:10.1079/bjn20051371. PMID 15877880.  edit
  5. ^ Thompson, L. U.; Boucher, B. A.; Liu, Z; Cotterchio, M; Kreiger, N (2006). "Phytoestrogen content of foods consumed in Canada, including isoflavones, lignans, and coumestan". Nutrition and cancer 54 (2): 184–201. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5402_5. PMID 16898863.  edit
  6. ^ Smeds, A. I.; Eklund, P. C.; Sjöholm, R. E.; Willför, S. M.; Nishibe, S; Deyama, T; Holmbom, B. R. (2007). "Quantification of a broad spectrum of lignans in cereals, oilseeds, and nuts". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 55 (4): 1337–46. doi:10.1021/jf0629134. PMID 17261017.  edit
  7. ^ Clavel, T; Doré, J; Blaut, M (2006). "Bioavailability of lignans in human subjects". Nutrition research reviews 19 (2): 187–96. doi:10.1017/S0954422407249704. PMID 19079885.  edit
  8. ^ Setchell, K. D.; Lawson, A. M.; Borriello, S. P.; Harkness, R; Gordon, H; Morgan, D. M.; Kirk, D. N.; Adlercreatz, H; Anderson, L. C.; Axelson, M (1981). "Lignan formation in man--microbial involvement and possible roles in relation to cancer". Lancet 2 (8236): 4–7. PMID 6113409.  edit
  9. ^ Kilkkinen, A; Pietinen, P; Klaukka, T; Virtamo, J; Korhonen, P; Adlercreutz, H (2002). "Use of oral antimicrobials decreases serum enterolactone concentration". American journal of epidemiology 155 (5): 472–7. PMID 11867359.  edit
  10. ^ Adlercreutz, H (2007). "Lignans and human health". Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences 44 (5–6): 483–525. doi:10.1080/10408360701612942. PMID 17943494.  edit
  11. ^ Peterson, J; Dwyer, J; Adlercreutz, H; Scalbert, A; Jacques, P; McCullough, M. L. (2010). "Dietary lignans: Physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction". Nutrition reviews 68 (10): 571–603. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00319.x. PMC 2951311. PMID 20883417.  edit