Enterprise social software
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Enterprise social software (also known as or regarded as a major component of Enterprise 2.0), comprises social software as used in "enterprise" (business/commercial) contexts. It includes social and networked modifications to corporate intranets and other classic software platforms used by large companies to organize their communication. In contrast to traditional enterprise software, which imposes structure prior to use, enterprise social software tends to encourage use prior to providing structure.
Carl Frappaolo and Dan Keldsen defined Enterprise 2.0 in a report written for Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) as "a system of web-based technologies that provide rapid and agile collaboration, information sharing, emergence and integration capabilities in the extended enterprise".
The term "enterprise social software" generally describes this class of tools. As of 2006, "Enterprise 2.0" had become a catchier term, sometimes used to describe social and networked changes to enterprises, which often includes social software (but may transcend social software, social collaboration and software).
The phrase Enterprise Web 2.0 sometimes refers to the introduction and implementation within an enterprise of Web 2.0 technologies, including rich Internet applications, providing software as a service, and using the web as a general platform.
- Search: allowing users to search for other users or content
- Links: grouping similar users or content together
- Authoring: including blogs and wikis
- Tags: allowing users to tag content
- Extensions: recommendations of users; or content based on profile
- Signals: allowing people to subscribe to users or content with RSS feeds
(Ref: McAfee, Andrew, P. "Enterprise 2.0: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration" (MIT Sloan Management Review), Spring 2006, Vol.47, No.3)
McAfee recommends installing easy-to-use software which does not impose any rigid structure on users. He envisages an informal roll-out, but on a common platform to enable future collaboration between areas. He also recommends strong and visible managerial support to achieve this.
- Freeform function: no barriers to authorship (meaning free from a learning curve or from restrictions)
- Network-oriented function, requiring web-addressable content in all cases
- Social function: stressing transparency (to access), diversity (in content and community members) and openness (to structure)
- Emergence function: requiring the provision of approaches that detect and leverage the collective wisdom of the community
Software examples 
Specific social software tools which programmers have adapted for enterprise use include:
- hypertext and unstructured search tools
- blogs for storytelling and sharing personal knowledge and experiences
- enterprise social bookmarking for tagging and building organizational knowledge
- RSS and Activity Streams for signaling
- collaborative planning software for peer-based project planning and management
- ideas banks for ideation (idea generation)
- social networking tools
- mashups for visualization
- prediction markets for forecasting and identifying risks.
- social profile for displaying users' social graph and activity stream (micro-blog). Profiles may optionally display user's interests and expertise for expertise search
- social bookmarking
- social search
- Web Content Management System
- instant messaging
- file sharing
Social networking capabilities can help organizations capture unstructured tacit knowledge. The challenge then becomes how to distill meaningful, re-usable knowledge from other content also captured in tools such as blogs, online communities, and wikis. In 2008, companies that provide enterprise social software started introducing profile pages to their products, to integrate the functionality of public online communities within the enterprise. This enables knowledge workers to find others with the knowledge they may need. Large organizations find this especially useful.
Specific uses 
Blogs and wikis function as collaboration tools, and as such, they have uses mainly in sharing "unstructured" information associated with ad hoc or ongoing projects and processes, but not for "structured informational" retrieval. However, Shell has started converting its official documentation to wikis, because this enables that company to make documentation updates available in real time and allows non-editors to contribute to the documentation. In this process Shell restructures the paper documents to a set of on-line wiki pages.
These applications can bring added value to company because:
- It facilitates user ergonomics: navigation more suited to the user, with it, it will save time.
- RSS feeds to keep employees informed of events: the contribution of the RSS is more customizable, which allows information to focus on individual interests and activities, and this, in all media, focusing inside. Some RSS readers can operate in offline mode
- A wiki for the company documentation: what a service call to reach such an entity, which is the contact person for doing something, what is this abbreviation to clean work areas ...
- The collaborative operation as a whole removes some traditional boundaries of hierarchy and organization
- Increased interaction with customers.
- Simplified integration with partners.
In the UK, BT (British Telecom) has become one of the country's strongest proponents of enterprise 2.0. The company has introduced a raft of social media tools, including a huge Wikipedia-style database called BTpedia, a central blogging tool, a podcasting tool, project collaboration software and enterprise social networking.
Business processes often rely on access to "structured" data, potentially from a variety of sources: databases, and directories. Social technologies work to address such complexities.
The "unstructured" information provided by social technologies has proven particularly useful in business processes that lack rigid pre-definition, but where people work together in an adaptive way to innovate solutions. Human interaction management provides the theory of such processes, and the associated type of software has become known as human interaction management systems (HIMS). A HIMS can provide management control over the use of social software.
Enterprise search differs from a typical web search in its focus on "use within an organization by employees seeking information held internally, in a variety of formats and locations, including databases, document management systems, and other repositories".
See also 
- Enterprise 2.0
- Knowledge management
- Enterprise bookmarking
- Semantic wiki
- Semantic Web
- Web 2.0
- Business Intelligence 2.0 (BI 2.0)
- Service Network
- Collaborative software
- Carl Frappaolo and Dan Keldsen (2008). "What is Web 2.0?". Association for Information and Image Management. Retrieved 2009-01-20. "AIIM defines Enterprise 2.0 as a system of web-based technologies that provide rapid and agile collaboration, information sharing, emergence and integration capabilities in the extended enterprise."
- *Hinchcliffe, Dion. "The state of Enterprise 2.0", ZDNET.com, London, October 22, 2007.
- "Enterprise Search: Seek and Ye Might Find", Computers in Libraries, July/August 2008, p. 22.