Environment of Pakistan
This article discusses topics related to the environment of Pakistan
- 1 Biota
- 2 Climate
- 3 Geography
- 4 Water
- 5 Climate change
- 6 Pollution
- 7 Coast Pollution
- 8 Air pollution
- 9 Light pollution
- 10 Littering
- 11 Climate
- 12 Geography
- 13 Water
- 14 Energy
- 15 Protected areas
- 16 Environmental policy
- 17 Environmental issues
- 18 Noise pollution
- 19 Soil contamination
- 20 Radioactive contamination
- 21 Thermal pollution
- 22 Visual pollution
- 23 Water pollution
- 24 See also
- 25 External links
- 26 References
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
Pakistan's coastline, which stretches over 1,046 km km, is facing severe pollution due to a combination of industrial, port, municipal, and transportation activities in the area. The coastline is being overwhelmed with water-borne pollution being discharged in the shipping process into the marine environment. A recent study found that some of the marine life was contaminated with lead, which if consumed by humans through seafood, has been linked to anemia, kidney failure and brain damage. In fact, the study also discovered that even the mangrove forests protecting the feeder creeks from sea erosion as well as a source of sustenance for fishermen are threatened by this pollution.
The Air pollution is the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to PM2.5. The air in Karachi is rapidly polluted by automobile smoke, especially Rickshaws and Buses, industrial emissions, open burning of garbage, house fires, and other particles but the government and environment organizations seems non-serious to tackle the issue timely.
The Two-stroke engine on Rickshaws and the Motorcycles are one of major major polluters of air in Karachi and rest of Pakistan. The two-stroke engines as well as defective or unturned vehicles are major polluters with Carbon dioxide emissions. Two-stroke engines as well as defective vehicles using substandard Lubricant are major emitters of Sulfur dioxide and smoke. Automobiles operating on the Compressed natural gas and the Liquefied petroleum gas are major air polluters.
Littering is the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unremoved, onto public and private properties.
most part of Pakistan lies in arid to semi arid zone of climate but there is a lot of variation observed in Pakistan due to the variation of relief features from lofty mountains to low lying area mostly climate of Pakistan is divided into four major climatic zones
1 High land climate zone (include all the mountain regions of Pakistan western and northern mountain) 2 low land climatic zone (include all the plain areas of Pakistan which include whole of Indus plain except Indus delta) 3 arid climate zone ( this zone include all the south eastern deserts like Cholistan, Nara and Tharparker ) 4 coastal climate zone ( include whole of coastal stripe from Makran coast to Karachi coast and Sindh coastal areas of Pakistan)
Noise pollution which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. The noise for Karachi came to 80 dB (A), the General Noise Index x (G.N.I.) to 460, and the noise pollution level (N.P.L.) to 99 dB (A). These values are significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than the available international data.
Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Radioactive contamination resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment)
Water pollution id by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering.
Pakistan exports Leather product using Leather production processes inclusing Tanning. In addition to the other environmental impacts of leather, the production processes have a high environmental impact, most notably due to:
- the heavy use of polluting chemicals in the tanning process
- air pollution due to the transformation process (hydrogen sulfide during dehairing and ammonia during deliming, solvent vapours).
One tonne of hide or skin generally leads to the production of 20 to 80 m3 of turbid and foul-smelling wastewater, including chromium levels of 100–400 mg/L, sulfide levels of 200–800 mg/L and high levels of fat and other solid wastes, as well as notable pathogen contamination. Pesticides are also often added for hide conservation during transport. With solid wastes representing up to 70% of the wet weight of the original hides, the tanning process comes at a considerable strain on water treatment installations.
- List of environmental issues
- Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
- Sustainable Development Policy Institute
- Nontraditional Security Threats in Pakistan by Ali Tauqeer Sheikh (October 2011)
- Ecological and Nontraditional Security Challenges in South Asia by Dennis Pirages, Farooq Sobhan, Stacy D. VanDeveer and Li Li (June 2011)
- "Pollution - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- The Karachi Coastline Case
- Rising air pollution badly affecting Karachiites
- Concerns about MTBE from U.S. EPA website
- "Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook - Environmental Guidelines for Tanning and Leather Finishing". Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, World Bank Group. Retrieved 2010-01-02.