Environmental Performance Index

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The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies. This index was developed from the Pilot Environmental Performance Index, first published in 2002, and designed to supplement the environmental targets set forth in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.[1]

The EPI was preceded by the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), published between 1999 and 2005. Both indexes were developed by Yale University (Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy) and Columbia University (Center for International Earth Science Information Network) in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The ESI was developed to evaluate environmental sustainability relative to the paths of other countries. Due to a shift in focus by the teams developing the ESI, the EPI uses outcome-oriented indicators, then working as a benchmark index that can be more easily used by policy makers, environmental scientists, advocates and the general public.[2]

As of January 2012 four EPI reports have been released - the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index,[3] and the 2008, 2010, and 2012 Environmental Performance Index.[4][5] For the 2012 report, a new "Pilot Trend EPI" was developed to rank countries based on the environmental performance changes occurred during the last decade, allowing to establish which countries are improving and which are declining.[6]

In the 2012 EPI ranking, the top five countries were Switzerland, Latvia, Norway, Luxembourg, and Costa Rica. The bottom five countries were South Africa, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Iraq.[5] The United Kingdom was ranked in 9th place, Japan 23rd place, Brazil 30th, the United States 49th, China 116th, and India came in 125th.[5][7] The top five countries based on their Pilot Trend EPI were Latvia, Azerbaijan, Romania, Albania and Egypt.[6]

2008 variables[edit]

EPI 2008: Objectives, policy categories and sub-categories, and indicators
OBJECTIVE
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
POLICY CATEGORIES
Environmental Burden of Disease
Water (effects on humans)
Air Pollution (effects on humans)
INDICATORS 1. Environmental Burden of Disease 2. Adequate Sanitation 4. Indoor Air Pollution
3. Drinking Water 5. Urban Particulates
6. Local Ozone
OBJECTIVE
ECOSYSTEM VITALITY
POLICY CATEGORIES
Air Pollution (effects on ecosystems)
Water
Biodiversity and Habitat
INDICATORS 7. Regional Ozone 9. Water Quality Index 11. Conservation Risk Index
8. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 10. Water Stress 12. Effective Conservation
13. Critical Habitat Protection
14. Marine Protected Areas
POLICY CATEGORIES
Productive Natural Resources
Productive Natural Resources
Productive Natural Resources
POLICY SUB-CATEGORY
Forestry
Fisheries
Agriculture
INDICATORS 15. Growing Stock 16. Marine Trophic Index 18. Irrigation Stress
17. Trawling Intensity 19. Agricultural Subsidies
20. Intensive Cropland
21. Burnt Land Area
22. Pesticide Regulation
POLICY CATEGORIES
Climate Change
INDICATORS 23. Emissions per capita
24. Emissions per electricity generated
25. Industrial carbon intensity


EPI scores[edit]

2014[edit]

On 25 January 2014 Yale University released the 2014 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 178 countries. [8]

Top 30 countries and score

2012[edit]

On 25 January 2012 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2012 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 132 countries.[5]

Top 30 countries and score[5]

Top 10 countries by Trend EPI[5][6] The EPI rank is shown in parentheses.

Worst 10 countries by Trend EPI[5][6] The EPI rank is shown in parentheses.

2010[edit]

On 28 January 2010 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2010 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 163 countries.[4] The top performer for 2010 is Iceland due to its high scores on environmental public health, gets virtually all of its power from renewable sources (hydropower and geothermal energy), and its control of greenhouse gas emissions. The United States fell to the 61st position, as compared to 39th in the 2008 EPI, Brazil ranks 62nd, Russia 69th, China 121st, and India ranks 123rd.[4][9]

Top 30 countries and score[4]

2008[edit]

On 23 January 2008 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2008 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 149 countries. The environmental experts at both universities concluded that "analysis of the drivers underlying the 2008 rankings suggests that wealth is a major determinant of environmental success".[10]

Top 30 countries and score[11]

2006[edit]

On 26 January 2006 Yale (YCELP) and Columbia University (CIESIN) released the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 133 countries. It was done in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.

Top 30 countries and score[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, and Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Environmental Performance Index". Retrieved 2008-03-16. [dead link]
  2. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "2008 Environmental Performance Index Report". Retrieved 2008-03-18.  See Executive Summary, pp. 32-35 for a detailed comparison between the ESI 2005, the EPI 2006 and the EPI 2008.
  3. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index Main Report". p. 33. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  4. ^ a b c d Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "2012 Environmental Performance Index". Retrieved 2010-01-27.  See also official Press release
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "2010 EPI Rankings". Retrieved 2012-01-25. 
  6. ^ a b c d Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "EPI 2012: Summary for Policymakers". EPI Yales. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  7. ^ Richard Solash (2012-01-27). "Russia, Central Asian States, Iraq Last In Environmental Index". Radio Liberty Europe. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  8. ^ "Country Rankings". Yale. 25 January 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-29. 
  9. ^ Elizabeth Rosenthal (2010-01-27). "Iceland Leads Environmental Index as U.S. Falls". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  10. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Switzerland Tops 2008 Environmental Scorecard at World Economic Forum". Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  11. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Environmental Performance Index 2008". Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  12. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index". Retrieved 2007-06-17. 

External links[edit]