Environmental impact of concrete
The environmental impact of concrete, its manufacture and applications, is complex. Some effects are harmful; others welcome. Many depend on circumstances. A major component of concrete is cement, which has its own environmental and social impacts and contributes largely to those of concrete.
In spite of the harm that badly planned use of concrete can do, well-planned concrete construction can have many sustainable benefits.
Concrete is used to create hard surfaces which contribute to surface runoff that may cause soil erosion, water pollution and flooding. Conversely, concrete is one of the most powerful tools for proper flood control, by means of damming, diversion, and deflection of flood waters, mud flows, and the like. Concrete is a primary contributor to the urban heat island effect, but is less so than asphalt. Concrete dust released by building demolition and natural disasters can be a major source of dangerous air pollution. The presence of some substances in concrete, including useful and unwanted additives, can cause health concerns due to toxicity and radioactivity. Wet concrete is highly alkaline and should always be handled with proper protective equipment. Concrete recycling is increasing in response to improved environmental awareness, legislation, and economic considerations.
Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change
The cement industry is one of two primary industrial producers of carbon dioxide (CO2), creating up to 5% of worldwide man-made emissions of this gas, of which 50% is from the chemical process and 40% from burning fuel. The carbon dioxide CO
2 produced for the manufacture of one tonne of structural concrete (using ~14% cement) is estimated at 410 kg/m3 (~180 kg/tonne @ density of 2.3 g/cm3) (reduced to 290 kg/m3 with 30% fly ash replacement of cement). The CO2 emission from the concrete production is directly proportional to the cement content used in the concrete mix; 900 kg of CO2 are emitted for the fabrication of every ton of cement. Cement manufacture contributes greenhouse gases both directly through the production of carbon dioxide when calcium carbonate is thermally decomposed, producing lime and carbon dioxide, and also through the use of energy, particularly from the combustion of fossil fuels.
There is a growing interest in reducing carbon emissions related to concrete from both the academic and industrial sectors, especially with the possibility of future carbon tax implementation. Several approaches to reducing emissions have been suggested.
One reason why the carbon emissions are so high is because cement has to be heated to very high temperatures in order for clinker to form. A major culprit of this is alite (Ca3SiO5), a mineral in concrete that cures within hours of pouring and is therefore responsible for much of its initial strength. However, alite also has to be heated to 1,500°C in the clinker-forming process. Some research suggests that alite can be replaced by a different mineral, such as belite (Ca2SiO4). Belite is also a mineral already used in concrete. It has a roasting temperature of 1,200°C, which is significantly lower than that of alite. Furthermore, belite is actually stronger once concrete cures. However, belite takes on the order of days or months to set completely, which leaves concrete weak for an unacceptably long period of time. Current research is focusing on finding possible impurity additives, like magnesium, that might speed up the curing process. It is also worthwhile to consider that belite takes more energy to grind, which may make its full life impact similar to or even higher than alite.
Another approach has been the partial replacement of conventional clinker with such alternatives as fly ash, bottom ash, and slag, all of which are by-products of other industries that would otherwise end up in landfills. Fly ash and bottom ash come from thermoelectric power plants, while slag is a waste from blast furnaces in the ironworks industry. These materials are slowly gaining popularity as additives, especially since they can potentially increase strength, decrease density, and prolong durability of concrete.
The main obstacle to wider implementation of fly ash and slag may be largely due to the risk of construction with new technology that has not been exposed to long field testing. Until a carbon tax is implemented, companies are unwilling to take the chance with new concrete mix recipes even if this reduces carbon emissions. However, there are some examples of “green” concrete and its implementation. One instance is a concrete company called Ceratech that has started manufacturing concrete with 95% fly ash and 5% liquid additives. Another is the I-35W Saint Anthony Falls Bridge, which was constructed with a novel mixture of concrete that included different compositions of Portland cement, fly ash, and slag depending on the portion of the bridge and its material properties requirements.
Italian company Italcementi designed a kind of cement, that is supposed to fight air pollution. It should break down pollutants that come in contact with the concrete, thanks to the use of titanium dioxide absorbing ultraviolet light. Some environmental experts nevertheless remain sceptical and wonder if the special material can 'eat' enough pollutants to make it financially viable. Jubilee Church in Rome is built from this kind of concrete.
Surface runoff, when water runs off impervious surfaces, such as non-porous concrete, can cause heavy soil erosion and flooding. Urban runoff tends to pick up gasoline, motor oil, heavy metals, trash and other pollutants from sidewalks, roadways and parking lots. Without attenuation, the impervious cover in a typical urban area limits groundwater percolation and causes five times the amount of runoff generated by a typical woodland of the same size. A 2008 report by the United States National Research Council identified urban runoff as a leading source of water quality problems.
Using light-colored concrete has proven effective in reflecting up to 50% more light than asphalt and reducing ambient temperature. A low albedo value, characteristic of black asphalt, absorbs a large percentage of solar heat and contributes to the warming of cities. By paving with light colored concrete, in addition to replacing asphalt with light-colored concrete, communities can lower their average temperature.
In many U.S. cities, pavement covers about 30–40% of the surface area. This directly affects the temperature of the city and contributes to the urban heat island effect. Paving with light-colored concrete would lower temperatures of paved areas and improve night-time visibility. The potential of energy saving within an area is also high. With lower temperatures, the demand for air conditioning theoretically decreases, saving energy. However, research into the interaction between reflective pavements and buildings has found that, unless the nearby buildings are fitted with reflective glass, solar radiation reflected off pavements can increase building temperatures, increasing air conditioning demands.
Atlanta has tried to mitigate the heat-island effect. City officials noted that when using heat-reflecting concrete, their average city temperature decreased by 6°F (3.3°C). The Design Trust for Public Space found that by slightly raising the albedo value in New York City, beneficial effects such as energy savings could be achieved. It was concluded that this could be accomplished by the replacement of black asphalt with light-colored concrete.
However, in winter this may be a disadvantage as ice will form more easily and remain longer on the light colored surfaces as they will be colder due to less energy absorbed from the reduced amount of sunlight in winter.
Building demolition and natural disasters such as earthquakes often release a large amount of concrete dust into the local atmosphere. Concrete dust was concluded to be the major source of dangerous air pollution following the Great Hanshin earthquake.
Toxic and radioactive contamination
The presence of some substances in concrete, including useful and unwanted additives, can cause health concerns. Natural radioactive elements (K, U and Th) can be present in various concentration in concrete dwellings, depending on the source of the raw materials used. Toxic substances may also be added to the mixture for making concrete by unscrupulous makers. Dust from rubble or broken concrete upon demolition or crumbling may cause serious health concerns depending also on what had been incorporated in the concrete.
Handling of wet concrete must always be done with proper protective equipment. Contact with wet concrete can cause skin chemical burns due to the caustic nature of the mixture of cement and water. Indeed, the pH of fresh cement water is highly alkaline due to the presence of free potassium and sodium hydroxides in solution (pH ~ 13.5). Eyes, hands and feet must be correctly protected to avoid any direct contact with wet concrete and washed without delay if necessary.
Concrete recycling is an increasingly common method of disposing of concrete structures. Concrete debris was once routinely shipped to landfills for disposal, but recycling is increasing due to improved environmental awareness, governmental laws and economic benefits.
Concrete, which must be free of trash, wood, paper and other such materials, is collected from demolition sites and put through a crushing machine, often along with asphalt, bricks and rocks.
Reinforced concrete contains rebar and other metallic reinforcements, which are removed with magnets and recycled elsewhere. The remaining aggregate chunks are sorted by size. Larger chunks may go through the crusher again. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. Aggregate base gravel is laid down as the lowest layer in a road, with fresh concrete or asphalt placed over it. Crushed recycled concrete can sometimes be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete if it is free of contaminants, though the use of recycled concrete limits strength and is not allowed in many jurisdictions. On 3 March 1983, a government funded research team (the VIRL research.codep) approximated that almost 17% of worldwide landfill was by-products of concrete based waste.
- The Cement Sustainability Initiative: Progress report, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, published 1 June 2002
- A. Samarin (7 September 1999), "Wastes in Concrete :Converting Liabilities into Assests", in Ravindra K. Dhir, Trevor G. Jappy, Exploiting wastes in concrete: proceedings of the international seminar held at the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK, Thomas Telford, p. 8
- Mahasenan, Natesan; Steve Smith; Kenneth Humphreys; Y. Kaya (2003). "The Cement Industry and Global Climate Change: Current and Potential Future Cement Industry CO2 Emissions". Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies – 6th International Conference. Oxford: Pergamon. pp. 995–1000. doi:10.1016/B978-008044276-1/50157-4. ISBN 978-0-08-044276-1.
- EIA – Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. 2006-Carbon Dioxide Emissions
- Amato, Ivan (2013). "Green cement: Concrete solutions". Nature 494: 300–301. doi:10.1038/494300a. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- Kim, H.; Lee, H. (2013). "Effects of High Volumes of Fly Ash, Blast Furnace Slag, and Bottom Ash on Flow Characteristics, Density, and Compressive Strength of High-Strength Mortar". J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 25 (5): 662–665. doi:10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0000624.
- Fountain, Henry. "Concrete Is Remixed With Environment in Mind". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- The Smog Eating Church of Rome
- Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA; and American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA. "Urban Runoff Quality Management." WEF Manual of Practice No. 23; ASCE Manual and Report on Engineering Practice No. 87. 1998. ISBN 978-1-57278-039-2. Chapter 1.
- G. Allen Burton, Jr., Robert Pitt (2001). Stormwater Effects Handbook: A Toolbox for Watershed Managers, Scientists and Engineers. New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87371-924-7. Chapter 2.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC. "Protecting Water Quality from Urban Runoff." Document No. EPA 841-F-03-003. February 2003.
- United States. National Research Council. Washington, DC. "Urban Stormwater Management in the United States." 15 October 2008. pp. 18–20.
- "Cool Pavement Report" (PDF). Environmental Protection Agency. June 2005. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
- Gore, A; Steffen, A (2008). World Changing: A User's Giode for the 21st Century. New York: Abrams. p. 258.
- Yaghoobian, N.; Kleissl, J. (2012). "Effect of reflective pavements on building energy use". Urban Climate 2: 25. doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2012.09.002.
- "Concrete facts". Pacific Southwest Concrete Alliance. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
- Ademola, J. A.; Oguneletu, P. O. (2005). "Radionuclide content of concrete building blocks and radiation dose rates in some dwellings in Ibadan, Nigeria". Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 81 (1): 107–113. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.12.002. PMID 15748664.