Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Illustration of hydraulic fracturing and related activities

The environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing includes land use and water consumption, and risks for noise pollution, air emissions, water contamination, and health effects. Water and air pollution are the biggest risks to human health from hydraulic fracturing. Noise from hydraulic fracturing and associated transport can affect residents and local wildlife; each well pad (in average 10 wells per pad) needs during preparatory and hydraulic fracturing process about 800 to 2,500 days of activity.[1] Research is underway to determine if human health has been affected, and rigorous following of safety procedures and regulation is required to avoid harm and to manage the risk of accidents that could cause harm.[2]

Hydraulic fracturing fluids include proppants and other chemicals. These may include toxic chemicals;[3] In the United States they are allowed to be treated as trade secrets by companies who use them. Lack of knowledge about specific chemicals has complicated efforts to develop risk management policies and to study health effects.[4][5] In other jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom, these chemicals must be made public and are required to be non hazardous in their application.[6]

Water usage by hydraulic fracturing can be a problem in areas that experience water shortage. Surface water may be contaminated through spillage and improperly built and maintained waste pits,[7] and ground water can be contaminated if the fluid is able to escape. Produced water is managed by underground injection, municipal and commercial wastewater treatment and discharge, self‐contained systems at well sites or fields, and recycling to fracture future wells.[8] There is potential for methane to be leaked into the air and ground water. Escape of a methane is a bigger problem in older wells than in ones built under more recent legislation.[1]

Hydraulic fracturing causes induced seismicity called microseismic events or microearthquakes. The magnitude of these events is too small to be detected at the surface, being of magnitude M-3 to M-1 usually. Fluid disposal wells, which are often used in the USA to dispose of polluted waste from several industries, have been responsible for earthquakes up to 5.6M in Ohio and other states.[9]

Governments worldwide are developing regulatory frameworks to assess and manage environmental and associated health risks, working under pressure from industry on the one hand, and from anti-fracking groups on the other.[10][11]:3–7 In some countries like France a precautionary approach has been favored and hydraulic fracturing has been banned.[12][13] Some countries such as the United States have adopted the approach of identifying risks before regulating.[citation needed] The United Kingdom's regulatory framework is based on conclusion that the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing are manageable if carried out under effective regulation and if operational best practices are implemented.[10]

Air emissions[edit]

A report for the European Union on the potential risks was produced in 2012. Potential risks are "methane emissions from the wells, diesel fumes and other hazardous pollutants, ozone precursors or odours from hydraulic fracturing equipment, such as compressors, pumps, and valves". Also gases and hydraulic fracturing fluids dissolved in flowback water pose air emissions risks.[1]

"In the UK, all oil and gas operators must minimise the release of gases as a condition of their licence from the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC). Natural gas may only be vented for safety reasons." [14]

Also transportation of necessary water volume for hydraulic fracturing, if done by trucks, can cause emissions[15] Using piped water supplies will reduce the number of truck movements necessary.[16]

A report from the Pennsylvania Dept of Environmental Protection indicated that there is little potential for radiation exposure from oil and gas operations.[17]

Climate change[edit]

Whether natural gas produced by hydraulic fracturing causes higher well-to-burner emissions than gas produced from conventional wells is a matter of contention. Some studies have found that hydraulic fracturing has higher emissions due to methane released during completing wells as some gas returns to the surface, together with the fracturing fluids. Depending on their treatment, the well-to-burner emissions are 3.5%–12% higher than for conventional gas.[18]

A debate has arisen particularly around a study by professor Robert W. Howarth finding shale gas significantly worse for global warming than oil or coal.[19] Other researchers have criticized Howarth's analysis,[20][21] including Cathles et al., whose estimates were substantially lower."[22] A 2012 industry funded report co-authored by researchers at the United States Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory found emissions from shale gas, when burned for electricity, were "very similar" to those from so-called "conventional well" natural gas, and less than half the emissions of coal.[8]

Several studies which have estimated lifecycle methane leakage from shale gas development and production have found a wide range of leakage rates, from less than 1% of total production to nearly 8%.[23][24] According to the Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory a methane leakage rate is about 1.4%.[25] The American Gas Association, an industry trade group, calculated a 1.2% leakage rate.[26] The most comprehensive study of methane leakage from shale gas to date, initiated by the Environmental Defense Fund and released in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on September 16, 2013, finds that fugitive emissions in key stages of the natural gas production process are significantly lower than estimates in the EPA's national emissions inventory. The study reports direct measurements from 190 onshore natural gas sites, all hydraulically fractured, across the country and estimates a leakage rate of 0.42% for gas production.[23]

Water consumption[edit]

Massive hydraulic fracturing typical of shale wells uses between 1.2 and 3.5 million US gallons (4,500 and 13,200 m3) of water per well, with large projects using up to 5 million US gallons (19,000 m3). Additional water is used when wells are refractured.[27][28] An average well requires 3 to 8 million US gallons (11,000 to 30,000 m3) of water over its lifetime.[28][29][30][31] According to the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, greater volumes of fracturing fluids are required in Europe, where the shale depths average 1.5 times greater than in the U.S.[32] Whilst the published amounts may seem large, they are small in comparison with the overall water usage in most areas. A study in Texas, which is a water shortage area, indicates "Water use for shale gas is <1% of statewide water withdrawals; however, local impacts vary with water availability and competing demands."[33]

A report by the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering shows the usage expected for hydraulic fracturing a well is approximately the amount needed to run a 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant for 12 hours.[10] A 2011 report from the Tyndall Centre estimates that to support a 9 billion cubic metres per annum (320×10^9 cu ft/a) gas production industry, between 1.25 to 1.65 million cubic metres (44×10^6 to 58×10^6 cu ft) would be needed annually,[34] which amounts to 0.01% of the total water abstraction nationally.

Concern has been raised over the increasing quantities of water for hydraulic fracturing in areas that experience water stress. Use of water for hydraulic fracturing can divert water from stream flow, water supplies for municipalities and industries such as power generation, as well as recreation and aquatic life.[35] The large volumes of water required for most common hydraulic fracturing methods have raised concerns for arid regions, such as the Karoo in South Africa,[36] and in drought-prone Texas, in North America.[37] It may also require water overland piping from distant sources.[30]

Some producers have developed hydraulic fracturing techniques that could reduce the need for water.[38] Using carbon dioxide, liquid propane or other gases instead of water have been proposed to reduce water consumption.[39] After it is used, the propane returns to its gaseous state and can be collected and reused. In addition to water savings, gas fracturing reportedly produces less damage to rock formations that can impede production.[38] Recycled flowback water can be reused in hydraulic fracturing.[18] It lowers the total amount of water used and reduces the need to dispose of wastewater after use. The technique is relatively expensive, however, since the water must be treated before each reuse and it can shorten the life of some types of equipment.[40]

Water contamination[edit]

Injected fluid[edit]

In the United States, hydraulic fracturing fluids include proppants, radionuclide tracers, and other chemicals, many of which are toxic.[3] The type of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing and their properties vary. While most of them are common and generally harmless, some chemicals are carcinogenic.[3] Out of 2,500 products used as hydraulic fracturing additives in the United States, 652 contained one or more of 29 chemical compounds which are either known or possible human carcinogens, regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act for their risks to human health, or listed as hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act.[3] Another 2011 study identified 632 chemicals used in United States natural gas operations, of which only 353 are well-described in the scientific literature.[41] The Ground Water Protection Council has launched FracFocus.org, an online voluntary disclosure database for hydraulic fracturing fluids funded by oil and gas trade groups and the Department of Energy.[5][42]

The European Union regulatory regime requires full disclosure of all additives.[4] According to the EU groundwater directive of 2006, "in order to protect the environment as a whole, and human health in particular, detrimental concentrations of harmful pollutants in groundwater must be avoided, prevented or reduced."[43] In the United Kingdom, only chemicals that are "non hazardous in their application" are licensed by the Environment Agency.[6]

Flowback[edit]

As the fracturing fluid flows back through the well, it consists of spent fluids and may contain dissolved constituents such as minerals and brine waters.[44] In some cases, depending on the geology of formation, it may contain uranium, radium, radon and thorium.[45] Estimates of the amount of injected fluid returning to the surface range from 15-20% to 30–70%.[44][46]

Approaches to managing these fluids, commonly known as produced water, include underground injection, municipal and commercial wastewater treatment and discharge, self‐contained systems at well sites or fields, and recycling to fracture future wells.[8][44][47][48] The vacuum multi-effect membrane distillation system as a more effective treatment system has been proposed for treatment of flowback.[49] However, the quantity of waste water needing treatment and the improper configuration of sewage plants have become an issue in some regions of the United States. Part of the wastewater from hydraulic fracturing operations is processed there by public sewage treatment plants, which are not equipped to remove radioactive material and are not required to test for it.[50][51]

Surface spills[edit]

Surface spills related to the hydraulic fracturing occur mainly because of equipment failure or engineering misjudgments.[7]

Volatile chemicals held in waste water evaporation ponds can to evaporate into the atmosphere, or overflow. The runoff can also end up in groundwater systems. Groundwater may become contaminated by trucks carrying hydraulic fracturing chemicals and wastewater if they are involved in accidents on the way to hydraulic fracturing sites or disposal destinations.[52]

In the evolving European Union legislation, it is required that "Member States should ensure that the installation is constructed in a way that prevents possible surface leaks and spills to soil, water or air." [53] Evaporation and open ponds are not permitted. Regulations call for all pollution pathways to be identified and mitigated. The of use chemical proof drilling pads to contain chemical spills is required. In the UK, total gas security is required, and venting of methane is only permitted in an emergency.[54][55][56]

Methane[edit]

In September 2014,a study from the US 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences' released a report that indicated that methane contamination can be correlated to distance from a well in wells that were known to leak. This however was not caused by the hydraulic fracturing process, but by poor cementation of casings.[57][58]

Groundwater methane contamination has adverse effect on water quality and in extreme cases may lead to potential explosion.[59] A scientific study conducted by researchers of Duke University found high correlations of gas well drilling activities, including hydraulic fracturing, and methane pollution of the drinking water.[59] According to the 2011 study of the MIT Energy Initiative, "there is evidence of natural gas (methane) migration into freshwater zones in some areas, most likely as a result of substandard well completion practices i.e. poor quality cementing job or bad casing, by a few operators."[60] A 2013 Duke study suggested that either faulty construction (defective cement seals in the upper part of wells, and faulty steel linings within deeper layers) combined with a peculiarity of local geology may be allowing methane to seep into waters; the latter cause may also release injected fluids to the aquifer.[61] Abandoned gas and oil wells also provide conduits to the surface in areas like Pennsylvania, where these are common.[62]

Some drinking water aquifers naturally contain methane, and drawing down the water level in the aquifer may cause an increase of methane in the drinking water, unrelated to oil or gas drilling.[63] Tests can distinguish between the biogenic methane created by bacteria at shallow depths, and the thermogenic methane, which forms under conditions of high pressure and temperature deeper underground. Most oil and gas development produces the deeper-sourced thermogenic methane.[63][64] Although methane that occurs naturally in shallow aquifers is usually biogenic, some drinking-water aquifers contain naturally occurring thermogenic methane,[65] or mixed biogenic-thermogenic methane.[59]

A study by Cabot Oil and Gas examined the Duke study using a larger sample size, found that methane concentrations were related to topography, with the highest readings found in low-lying areas, rather than related to distance from gas production areas. Using a more precise isotopic analysis, they showed that the methane found in the water wells came from both the formations where hydraulic fracturing occurred, and from the shallower formations.[64] The Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission investigates complaints from water well owners, and has found some wells to contain biogenic methane unrelated to oil and gas wells, but others that have thermogenic methane due to oil and gas wells with leaking well casing.[63] A review published in February 2012 found no direct evidence that hydraulic fracturing actual injection phase resulted in contamination of ground water, and suggests that reported problems occur due to leaks in its fluid or waste storage apparatus; the review says that methane in water wells in some areas probably comes from natural resources.[66][67]

Another 2013 review found that hydraulic fracturing technologies are not free from risk of contaminating groundwater, and described the controversy over whether the methane that has been detected in private groundwater wells near hydraulic fracturing sites has been caused by drilling or by natural processes.[68]

Radionuclides[edit]

There are naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), for example radium, radon,[69] uranium, and thorium,[45][70][71] in shale deposits.[51] Brine co-produced and brought to the surface along with the oil and gas sometimes contains naturally occurring radioactive materials; brine from many shale gas wells, contains these radioactive materials.[51][72][73] When NORM is concentrated or exposed by human activities, such as hydraulic fracturing, EPA classifies it as TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material).[74][75][importance?]

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and regulators in North Dakota consider radioactive material in flowback a potential hazard to workers at hydraulic fracturing drilling and waste disposal sites and those living or working nearby if the correct procedures are not followed.[76][77]

Land usage[edit]

In the UK, the likely well spacing visualised by the Dec 2013 DECC Strategic Environmental Assessment report indicated that well pad spacings of 5 km were likely in crowded areas, with up to 3 hectares (7.4 acres) per well pad. Each pad could have 24 separate wells. This amounts to 0.16% of land area.[78]

Seismicity[edit]

Hydraulic fracturing causes induced seismicity called microseismic events or microearthquakes. These microseismic events are often used to map the horizontal and vertical extent of the fracturing.[79] The magnitude of these events is usually too small to be detected at the surface, although the biggest micro-earthquakes may have the magnitude of about -1.5 (Mw).[80]

Induced seismicity from hydraulic fracturing[edit]

As of late 2014, there have been three instances of hydraulic fracturing, through induced seismicity, triggering quakes large enough to be felt by people: one each in the United States, Canada, and England.[81][82] In England, two earthquakes that occurred in April and May 2011 of a magnitude of respectively 1.5 and 2.3 on the Richter scale were felt by local populations. The United Kingdom Department of Energy and Climate Change said the "observed seismicity in April and May 2011 was induced by the hydraulic fracture treatments at Preese Hall", in the North of England.[83][84]

The National Research Council (part of the National Academy of Sciences) has also observed that hydraulic fracturing, when used in shale gas recovery, does not pose a serious risk of causing earthquakes that can be felt.[85]

Induced seismicity from water disposal wells[edit]

According to the USGS only a small fraction of roughly 30,000 waste fluid disposal wells for oil and gas operations in the United States have induced earthquakes that are large enough to be of concern to the public.[9] Although the magnitudes of these quakes has been small, the USGS says that there is no guarantee that larger quakes will not occur.[86] In addition, the frequency of the quakes has been increasing. In 2009, there were 50 earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.0 in the area spanning Alabama and Montana, and there were 87 quakes in 2010. In 2011 there were 134 earthquakes in the same area, a sixfold increase over 20th century levels.[87] There are also concerns that quakes may damage underground gas, oil, and water lines and wells that were not designed to withstand earthquakes.[86][88]

Several earthquakes in 2011, including a 4.0 magnitude quake on New Year's Eve that hit Youngstown, Ohio, are likely linked to a disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater,[81] according to seismologists at Columbia University.[89] A similar series of small earthquakes occurred in 2012 in Texas. Earthquakes are not common occurrences in either area.[90]

A 2012 US Geological Survey study reported that a "remarkable" increase in the rate of M ≥ 3 earthquakes in the US midcontinent "is currently in progress", having started in 2001 and culminating in a 6-fold increase over 20th century levels in 2011. The overall increase was tied to earthquake increases in a few specific areas: the Raton Basin of southern Colorado (site of coalbed methane activity), and gas-producing areas in central and southern Oklahoma, and central Arkansas.[91] While analysis suggested that the increase is "almost certainly man-made", the USGS noted: "USGS's studies suggest that the actual hydraulic fracturing process is only very rarely the direct cause of felt earthquakes." The increased earthquakes were said to be most likely caused by increased injection of gas-well wastewater into disposal wells.[9] The injection of waste water from oil and gas operations, including from hydraulic fracturing, into saltwater disposal wells may cause bigger low-magnitude tremors, being registered up to 3.3 (Mw).[80]

In 2013, Researchers from Columbia University and the University of Oklahoma demonstrated that in the midwestern United States, some areas with increased human-induced seismicity are susceptible to additional earthquakes triggered by the seismic waves from remote earthquakes. They recommended increased seismic monitoring near fluid injection sites to determine which areas are vulnerable to remote triggering and when injection activity should be ceased.[81][92]

A British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission investigation concluded that a series of 38 earthquakes (magnitudes ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 on the Richter scale) occurring in the Horn River Basin area between 2009 and 2011 were caused by fluid injection during hydraulic fracturing in proximity to pre-existing faults. The tremors were small enough that only one of them was reported felt by people; there were no reports of injury or property damage.[93]

Noise[edit]

Each well pad (in average 10 wells per pad) needs during preparatory and hydraulic fracturing process about 800 to 2,500 days of activity, which may affect residents. In addition, noise is created by transport related to the hydraulic fracturing activities.[1]

The UK Onshore Oil and Gas (UKOOG) is the industry representative body, and it has published a charter that shows how noise concerns will be mitigated, using sound insulation, and heavily silenced rigs where this is needed.[94]

Safety issues[edit]

In July 2013, the United States Federal Railroad Administration listed oil contamination by hydraulic fracturing chemicals as "a possible cause" of corrosion in oil tank cars.[95]

Health risks[edit]

There is worldwide concern over the possible adverse public health implications of hydraulic fracturing activity.[96] A 2013 review on shale gas production in the United States stated, "with increasing numbers of drilling sites, more people are at risk from accidents and exposure to harmful substances used at fractured wells."[97] A 2011 hazard assessment found that most of the chemicals used for hydraulic fracturing and drilling have immediate health effects, and many may have long-term health effects.[98]

In June 2014 Public Health England published a review of the potential public health impacts of exposures to chemical and radioactive pollutants as a result of shale gas extraction in the UK, based on the examination of literature and data from countries where hydraulic fracturing already occurs.[2] The executive summary of the report stated: "An assessment of the currently available evidence indicates that the potential risks to public health from exposure to the emissions associated with shale gas extraction will be low if the operations are properly run and regulated. Most evidence suggests that contamination of groundwater, if it occurs, is most likely to be caused by leakage through the vertical borehole. Contamination of groundwater from the underground hydraulic fracturing process itself (ie the fracturing of the shale) is unlikely. However, surface spills of hydraulic fracturing fluids or wastewater may affect groundwater, and emissions to air also have the potential to impact on health. Where potential risks have been identified in the literature, the reported problems are typically a result of operational failure and a poor regulatory environment."[99]:iii

A 2013 review focusing on Marcellus shale gas hydraulic fracturing and the New York City water supply stated, "Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State."[100] In 2014, New York State banned hydraulic fracturing entirely, citing health risks.[101]

A 2012 report prepared for the European Union Directorate-General for the Environment identified risks to humans from air pollution and ground water contamination posed by hydraulic fracturing.[1] This lead to a series of recommendations in 2014 to mitigate these concerns.[102][103]

A 2012 guidance for pediatric nurses in the US, said that hydraulic fracturing had a potential negative impact on public health, and that pediatric nurses should be prepared to gather information on such topics so as to advocate for improved community health.[104]

Policy and science[edit]

There are two main approaches to regulation that derive from policy debates about how to manage risk and a corresponding debate about how to assess risk.[11]:3–7

The two main schools of regulation are science-based assessment of risk and the taking of measures to prevent harm from those risks through an approach like hazard analysis, and the precautionary principle, where action is taken before risks are well-identified.[105] The relevance and reliability of risk assessments in communities where hydraulic fracturing occurs has also been debated amongst environmental groups, health scientists, and industry leaders. The risks, to some, are overplayed and the current research is insufficient in showing the link between hydraulic fracturing and adverse health effects, while to others the risks are obvious and risk assessment is underfunded.[106]

Different regulatory approaches have thus emerged. In France and Vermont for instance, a precautionary approach has been favored and hydraulic fracturing has been banned based on two principles: the precautionary principle and the prevention principle.[12][13] Nevertheless, some States such as the U.S. have adopted a risk assessment approach, which had led to many regulatory debates over the issue of hydraulic fracturing and its risks.

In the UK, the regulatory framework is largely being shaped by a report commissioned by the UK Government in 2012, whose purpose was to identify the problems around hydraulic fracturing and to advise the country's regulatory agencies. Jointly published by the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering, under the chairmanship of Professor Robert Mair, the report features ten recommendations covering issues such as groundwater contamination, well integrity, seismic risk, gas leakages, water management, environmental risks, best practice for risk management, and also includes advice for regulators and research councils.[10][107] The report was notable for stating that the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing are manageable if carried out under effective regulation and if operational best practices are implemented.

A 2013 review concluded that, in the US, confidentiality requirements dictated by legal investigations have impeded peer-reviewed research into environmental impacts.[68]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Broomfield 2012
  2. ^ a b Public Health England. 25 June 2014 PHE-CRCE-009: Review of the potential public health impacts of exposures to chemical and radioactive pollutants as a result of shale gas extraction ISBN 978-0-85951-752-2
  3. ^ a b c d Chemicals Used in Hydraulic Fracturing (PDF) (Report). Committee on Energy and Commerce U.S. House of Representatives. April 18, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Healy 2012
  5. ^ a b Hass, Benjamin (14 August 2012). "Fracking Hazards Obscured in Failure to Disclose Wells". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "Developing Onshore Shale Gas and Oil – Facts about 'Fracking'". Department of Energy and Climate Change. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Walter, Laura (22 May 2013). "AIHce 2013: Investigating Surface Spills in the Fracking Industry". Penton. EHSToday. 
  8. ^ a b c Logan, Jeffrey (2012). Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity (PDF) (Report). Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c "Man-Made Earthquakes Update". United States Geological Survey. 2014-01-17. Retrieved 2014-03-30. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Shale gas extraction: Final report". The Royal Society. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Office of Research and Development US Environmental Protection Agency. November 2011 Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources
  12. ^ a b "LOI n° 2011-835 du 13 juillet 2011 visant à interdire l'exploration et l'exploitation des mines d'hydrocarbures liquides ou gazeux par fracturation hydraulique et à abroger les permis exclusifs de recherches comportant des projets ayant recours à cette technique"
  13. ^ a b "Vermont Act 152"
  14. ^ UK Department of Energy and Climate Change. February 2014 "Fracking UK shale: local air quality"
  15. ^ Fernandez, John Michael; Gunter, Matthew. "Hydraulic Fracturing: Environmentally Friendly Practices" (PDF). Houston Advanced Research Center. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  16. ^ "Fracking UK shale: water". DECC. Retrieved 13 Nov 2014. 
  17. ^ Pennsylvania, Dept of Environmental Protection. "DEP Study Shows There is Little Potential for Radiation Exposure from Oil and Gas Development". Pensylvania DEP. Retrieved Jan 2015. 
  18. ^ a b IEA (2011). World Energy Outlook 2011. OECD. pp. 91; 164. ISBN 978 92 64 12413 4. 
  19. ^ Howarth, Robert W.; Santoro, Renee; Ingraffea, Anthony (13 March 2011). "Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations" (PDF). Climatic Change (Springer) 106 (4): 679–690. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0061-5. Retrieved 2012-05-07. 
  20. ^ Cathles, Lawrence M.; Brown, Larry; Taam, Milton; Hunter, Andrew (2011). "A commentary on "The greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas in shale formations"". Climatic Change. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0333-0. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  21. ^ Stephen Leahy (24 January 2012). "Shale Gas a Bridge to More Global Warming". IPS. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  22. ^ Howarth, Robert W.; Santoro, Renee; Ingraffea, Anthony (1 February 2012). "Venting and leaking of methane from shale gas development: Response to Cathles et al." (PDF). Climatic Change (Springer). doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0401-0. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  23. ^ a b Allen, David T.; Torres, Vincent N.; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W.; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C.; Kolb, Charles E.; Fraser, Matthew P.; Hill, A. Daniel; Lamb, Brian K.; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F.; Seinfeld, John H. (16 September 2013). "Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1304880110. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  24. ^ Trembath, Alex; Luke, Max; Shellenberger, Michael; Nordhaus, Ted (June 2013). Coal Killer: How Natural Gas Fuels the Clean Energy Revolution (PDF) (Report). Breakthrough institute. p. 22. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  25. ^ Bradbury, James; Obeiter, Michael (2013-05-06). "5 Reasons Why It's Still Important To Reduce Fugitive Methane Emissions". World Resources Institute. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  26. ^ "The Importance of Accurate Data". True Blue Natural Gas. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  27. ^ Andrews, Anthony et al. (30 October 2009). Unconventional Gas Shales: Development, Technology, and Policy Issues (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service. pp. 7; 23. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  28. ^ a b Abdalla, Charles W.; Drohan, Joy R. (2010). Water Withdrawals for Development of Marcellus Shale Gas in Pennsylvania. Introduction to Pennsylvania's Water Resources (PDF) (Report). The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 16 September 2012. Hydrofracturing a horizontal Marcellus well may use 4 to 8 million gallons of water, typically within about 1 week. However, based on experiences in other major U.S. shale gas fields, some Marcellus wells may need to be hydrofractured several times over their productive life (typically five to twenty years or more) 
  29. ^ GWPC & ALL Consulting 2012
  30. ^ a b Arthur, J. Daniel; Uretsky, Mike; Wilson, Preston (May 5–6, 2010). Water Resources and Use for Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Region (PDF). Meeting of the American Institute of Professional Geologists. Pittsburgh: ALL Consulting. p. 3. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  31. ^ Cothren, Jackson. Modeling the Effects of Non-Riparian Surface Water Diversions on Flow Conditions in the Little Red Watershed (PDF) (Report). U. S. Geological Survey, Arkansas Water Science Center Arkansas Water Resources Center, American Water Resources Association, Arkansas State Section Fayetteville Shale Symposium 2012. p. 12. Retrieved 16 September 2012. ...each well requires between 3 and 7 million gallons of water for hydraulic fracturing and the number of wells is expected to grow in the future 
  32. ^ Faucon, Benoît (17 September 2012). "Shale-Gas Boom Hits Eastern Europe". WSJ.com. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  33. ^ Nicot, Jean-Philippe (2 Mar 2012). "Water Use for Shale-Gas Production in Texas, U.S.". Environmental Science and Technology. Retrieved 1 Nov 2014. 
  34. ^ Tyndall center report
  35. ^ Upton, John (August 15, 2013). "Fracking company wants to build new pipeline — for water". Grist. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 
  36. ^ Urbina, Ian (30 December 2011). "Hunt for Gas Hits Fragile Soil, and South Africans Fear Risks". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2012. Covering much of the roughly 800 miles between Johannesburg and Cape Town, this arid expanse – its name [Karoo] means "thirsty land" – sees less rain in some parts than the Mojave Desert. 
  37. ^ Staff (16 June 2013). "Fracking fuels water battles". Politico. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  38. ^ a b "Texas Water Report: Going Deeper for the Solution". Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  39. ^ Bullis, Kevin (2013-03-22). "Skipping the Water in Fracking". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2014-03-30. 
  40. ^ Sider, Alison; Lefebvre, Ben (20 November 2012). "Drillers Begin Reusing 'Frack Water.' Energy Firms Explore Recycling Options for an Industry That Consumes Water on Pace With Chicago". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  41. ^ Colborn, Theo; Kwiatkowski, Carol; Schultz, Kim; Bachran, Mary (2011). "Natural Gas Operations from a Public Health Perspective" (PDF). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: an International Journal (Taylor & Francis) 17 (5): 1039–1056. doi:10.1080/10807039.2011.605662. 
  42. ^ Soraghan, Mike (13 December 2013). "White House official backs FracFocus as preferred disclosure method". E&E News. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  43. ^ "EU Groundwater directive". 
  44. ^ a b c Arthur, J. Daniel; Langhus, Bruce; Alleman, David (2008). An overview of modern shale gas development in the United States (PDF) (Report). ALL Consulting. p. 21. Retrieved 2012-05-07. 
  45. ^ a b Weinhold, Bob (19 September 2012). "Unknown Quantity: Regulating Radionuclides in Tap Water". Environmental Health Perspectives. NIEHS, NIH. Retrieved 11 February 2012. Examples of human activities that may lead to radionuclide exposure include mining, milling, and processing of radioactive substances; wastewater releases from the hydraulic fracturing of oil and natural gas wells... Mining and hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking", can concentrate levels of uranium (as well as radium, radon, and thorium) in wastewater... 
  46. ^ Staff. Waste water (Flowback)from Hydraulic Fracturing (PDF) (Report). Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 29 June 2013. Most of the water used in fracturing remains thousands of feet underground, however, about 15-20 percent returns to the surface through a steel-cased well bore and is temporarily stored in steel tanks or lined pits. The wastewater which returns to the surface after hydraulic fracturing is called flowback 
  47. ^ Hopey, Don (1 March 2011). "Gas drillers recycling more water, using fewer chemicals". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  48. ^ Litvak, Anya (21 August 2012). "Marcellus flowback recycling reaches 90 percent in SWPA.". Pittsburgh Business Times. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  49. ^ "Monitor: Clean that up". The Economist. 2013-11-30. Retrieved 2013-12-15. 
  50. ^ David Caruso (2011-01-03). "44,000 Barrels of Tainted Water Dumped Into Neshaminy Creek. We're the only state allowing tainted water into our rivers". NBC Philadelphia. Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-04-28. 
  51. ^ a b c Urbina, Ian (26 February 2011). "Regulation Lax as Gas Wells' Tainted Water Hits Rivers". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  52. ^ Energy Institute (February 2012). Fact-Based Regulation for Environmental Protection in Shale Gas Development (PDF) (Report). University of Texas at Austin. p. ?. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  53. ^ "COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION of 22 January 2014 on minimum principles for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons (such as shale gas) using high-volume hydraulic fracturing". EUR-LEX. Retrieved Nov 2014. 
  54. ^ European, Commission. "Environmental Aspects on Unconventional Fossil Fuels". Retrieved 27 Oct 2014. 
  55. ^ "Fracking UK shale : local air quality". DECC. UK Govt. Retrieved 27 Oct 2014. 
  56. ^ "Fracking UK shale : water". DECC. UK Govt. Retrieved 27 Oct 2014. 
  57. ^ abstract
  58. ^ full report
  59. ^ a b c Osborn, Stephen G.; Vengosh, Avner; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Jackson, Robert B. (2011-05-17). "Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (20): 8172–8176. doi:10.1073/pnas.1100682108. Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  60. ^ Moniz, Jacoby & Meggs 2012
  61. ^ Ehrenburg, Rachel (25 June 2013). "News in Brief: High methane in drinking water near fracking sites. Well construction and geology may both play a role". Science News. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  62. ^ Detrow, Scott (9 October 2012). "Perilous Pathways: How Drilling Near An Abandoned Well Produced a Methane Geyser". StateImpact Pennsylvania. NPR. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  63. ^ a b c "Gasland Correction Document". Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  64. ^ a b Molofsky, L. J.; Connor, J. A.; Shahla, K. F.; Wylie, A. S.; Wagner, T. (December 5, 2011). "Methane in Pennsylvania Water Wells Unrelated to Marcellus Shale Fracturing". Oil and Gas Journal (Pennwell Corporation) 109 (49): 54–67. (subscription required). 
  65. ^ Texas Railroad Commission, Press release: staff report on Parker, Texas, 22 Mar. 2011.
  66. ^ "Fracking Acquitted of Contaminating Groundwater". Science 335: 898. 24 February 2012. doi:10.1126/science.335.6071.898. 
  67. ^ Erik Stokstad (16 February 2012). "Mixed Verdict on Fracking". Science Now. 
  68. ^ a b Vidic, R.D., et al. (May 17, 2013). "Impact of Shale Gas Development on Regional Water Quality". Science 340 (1235009): 826. doi:10.1126/science.1235009. PMID 23687049. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  69. ^ Staff. "Radon in Drinking Water: Questions and Answers". US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  70. ^ Heather Smith (7 March 2013). "County's potential for fracking is undetermined". Environment / Pollution. Discover Magazine. Retrieved 11 August 2013. 
  71. ^ Lubber, Mindy (28 May 2013). "Escalating Water Strains In Fracking Regions". Forbes. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  72. ^ Linda Marsa (1 August 2011). "Fracking Nation. Environmental concerns over a controversial mining method could put America's largest reservoirs of clean-burning natural gas beyond reach. Is there a better way to drill?". Environment / Pollution. Discover Magazine. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  73. ^ White, Jeremy; Park, Haeyoun; Urbina, Ian; Palmer, Griff (26 February 2011). "Toxic Contamination From Natural Gas Wells". The New York Times. 
  74. ^ "TENORM Sources". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  75. ^ "Oil and Gas Production Wastes". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  76. ^ "Radioactive Waste from Oil and Gas Drilling". United States Environmental Protection Agency. April 2006. Retrieved 2013-08-11. 
  77. ^ McMahon, Jeff (24 July 2013). "Strange Byproduct Of Fracking Boom: Radioactive Socks". Forbes. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  78. ^ "Strategic Environmental Assessment for Further Onshore Oil and Gas Licensing" (PDF). Department of Energy and Climate Change. June 2014. p. ?. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  79. ^ Bennet, Les, et al.. "The Source for Hydraulic Fracture Characterization" (PDF). Oilfield Review (Schlumberger) (Winter 2005/2006): 42–57. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  80. ^ a b Zoback, Kitasei & Copithorne 2010
  81. ^ a b c Kim, Won-Young 'Induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into a deep well in Youngstown, Ohio', Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth
  82. ^ Begley, Sharon; McAllister, Edward (12 July 2013). "News in Science: Earthquakes may trigger fracking tremors". ABC Science (Reuters). Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  83. ^ Dr Christopher A. GREEN, Professor Peter STYLES. "PREESE HALL SHALE GAS FRACTURING REVIEW & RECOMMENDAT IONS FOR INDUCED SEISMIC MITI GATION". DECC. Retrieved Nov 2014. 
  84. ^ de Pater, C.J.; Baisch, S. (2 November 2011). Geomechanical Study of Bowland Shale Seismicity (PDF) (Report). Cuadrilla Resources. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  85. ^ "Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies". National Academies Press. Retrieved 27 March 2013. The process of hydraulic fracturing a well as presently implemented for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events. 
  86. ^ a b Rachel Maddow, Terrence Henry (7 August 2012). Rachel Maddow Show: Fracking waste messes with Texas (video). MSNBC. Event occurs at 9:24 - 10:35. 
  87. ^ Soraghan, Mike (29 March 2012). "'Remarkable' spate of man-made quakes linked to drilling, USGS team says". EnergyWire (E&E). Retrieved 2012-11-09. 
  88. ^ Henry, Terrence (6 August 2012). "How Fracking Disposal Wells Are Causing Earthquakes in Dallas-Fort Worth". State Impact Texas. NPR. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  89. ^ "Ohio Quakes Probably Triggered by Waste Disposal Well, Say Seismologists" (Press release). Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  90. ^ "EPA Underground Injection Control Program". Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  91. ^ Ellsworth, W. L.; Hickman, S.H.; McGarr, A.; Michael, A. J.; Rubinstein, J. L. (18 April 2012). Are seismicity rate changes in the midcontinent natural or manmade?. Seismological Society of America 2012 meeting. San Diego, California: Seismological Society of America. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  92. ^ van der Elst1, Nicholas J.; Savage, Heather M.; Keranen, Katie M; Abers, Geoffrey A. (12 July 2013). "Enhanced Remote Earthquake Triggering at Fluid-Injection Sites in the Midwestern United States". Science (ACS Publications). 341 (6142): 164–167. doi:10.1126/science.1238948. 
  93. ^ "Fracking causes minor earthquakes, B.C. regulator says". The Canadian Press (Canadian Broadcast Company — British Columbia). 6 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  94. ^ "What it looks like Noise chapter". UKOOG. Retrieved 11 Nov 2014. 
  95. ^ Frederick J. Herrmann, Federal Railroad Administration, letter to American Petroleum Institute, 17 July 2013, p.4.
  96. ^ Finkel ML, Hays J (October 2013). "The implications of unconventional drilling for natural gas: a global public health concern". Public Health (Review) 127 (10): 889–93. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2013.07.005. PMID 24119661. This in silico epidemiologic study will analyse at 2.6 million electronic health records of patients in 31 Pennsylvania counties for respiratory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and pregnancy outcomes. 
  97. ^ Centner, Terence J. (September 2013). "Oversight of shale gas production in the United States and the disclosure of toxic substances". Resources Policy 38 (3): 233–240. doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2013.03.001. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  98. ^ Colborn, Theo, et al. (September 20, 2011). "Natural Gas Operations from a Public Health Perspective". Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 17 (5): 1039–1056. doi:10.1080/10807039.2011.605662. 
  99. ^ A. Kibble, T. Cabianca, Z. Daraktchieva, T. Gooding, J. Smithard, G. Kowalczyk, N. P. McColl, M. Singh, L. Mitchem, P. Lamb, S. Vardoulakis and R. Kamanyire (January 2014). Review of the Potential Public Health Impacts of Exposures to Chemical and Radioactive Pollutants as a Result of the Shale Gas Extraction Process (Report). Public Health England. PHE-CRCE-009. 
  100. ^ Eaton TT. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Sep 1;461-462:158-69. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.093. Epub 2013 May 28. PMID 23722091
  101. ^ Brady, Jeff (December 18, 2014). "Citing Health, Environment Concerns, New York Moves To Ban Fracking". National Public Radio. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  102. ^ "EU Commission minimum principles for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons (such as shale gas) using high-volume hydraulic fracturing". EUR LEX. Retrieved Nov 2014. 
  103. ^ "Energy and environment". EUR LEX. 
  104. ^ Lauver LS (August 2012). "Environmental health advocacy: an overview of natural gas drilling in northeast Pennsylvania and implications for pediatric nursing". J Pediatr Nurs 27 (4): 383–9. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2011.07.012. PMID 22703686. 
  105. ^ Editors, ParisTech Review March 28th, 2014 Is it really possible to enforce the precautionary principle?
  106. ^ Williams, Laurence, John "Framing fracking: public responses to potential unconventional fossil fuel exploitation in the North of England", Durham thesis, Durham University, 2014
  107. ^ Royal Society 2012

Bibliography[edit]