Environmental issues in Thailand

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Forest fire in Mae Hong Son Province, March 2010

The government of Thailand has been focusing on the social and economic development of the country for the past 35 years. However, since Thailand introduced the Seventh Economic and Social development plan (1992-1996),[1] protecting the environment has become one of the top priorities for the Thailand government. The Seventh Economic and Social development plan seeks to maintain economic growth and achieve sustainable growth and stability, especially in the petrochemical,engineering,electronics and basic industries.[2]

Over the past few decades, Thailand's dramatic economic growth brought about new environmental challenges in the once-agrarian economy. The country presently faces problems with air and water pollution, declining wildlife populations, deforestation, soil erosion, water scarcity, and hazardous waste issues. According to the 2004 indicator, cost of air and water pollution for the country scales up to approximately 1.6% - 2.6% of her GDP per year.[3] As such, Thailand's economic growth has come at great cost in damage to its people and environment.

Deforestation[edit]

Forest cover in Thailand has been greatly reduced as people convert forested land for agriculture. Forest cover fell drastically from 53% in 1961 to 25% in 1998. Wetlands have been converted to rice paddies and urban sprawl.[4] With a government measures in place to prohibit logging, deforestation rates have dropped, but the impacts of deforestation are still being felt.[5]

Deforestation creates a host of environmental problems: soil erosion, sedimentation of rivers, and loss of natural habitat. In the fisheries sector, over-harvesting of marine fisheries has reduced fishing yields by 90%. Wetlands and mangroves in coastal areas have been seriously degraded by expansion of commercial fishing, shrimp aquaculture, industry, and tourism, causing much of Thailand's biodiversity losses.[6]

Air pollution[edit]

Motorbikes, Nana intersection, Bangkok
Wildfires in the Khun Tan Range in Mae Tha District, Lamphun. Every year mountain forests are set on fire by farmers to increase the yield of the valuable fungus Astraeus odoratus

Industrial growth has created high levels of air pollution in Thailand. Vehicles and factories contribute to air pollution, particularly in Bangkok.[7]

The Bangkok metropolitan area, which consists of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) and the four surrounding provinces (Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Nakhon Pathom, and Samut Prakan), holds about 20% of the national population and over half of the country's factories. The concentration of factories in the metropolitan area, the air pollution caused by motor vehicle emissions, and grave water pollution from household and industrial wastewater, justified that there would be no doubt of the escalation of externalities from production. Further, due to a lack of treatment facilities, the increasing volumes of hazardous substances generated by the thriving industrial activities have caused serious dumping issues. Unless treatment facilities are built and institutions starts to regulate strictly, environmental contamination caused by hazardous waste threatens to become Thailand's worst environmental problem in the future.[1]

The Pollution Control Department and other agencies have developed standards in order to reduce air pollution from certain sources. The standards focus shifting to lower-emission vehicle engines and improving public transportation. Vehicles — motorcycles make up around 75% of the vehicles on the road in Thailand; diesel trucks and buses also contribute many pollutants. In most areas of the country, air pollutants for vehicles are now within acceptable levels according to national standards. Factories and power plants have been also required to reduce emissions. Bangkok and the rest of the Central Region contribute between 60 and 70 percent of the country’s industrial emissions. As regards power plants, most energy production relies on burning of fossil fuels.

Other sources of air pollution include garbage burning, open cooking and agricultural burning practices, including deliberate forest fires. Agricultural burning in southeast Asia often creates a haze. In 2003 Thailand ratified the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution to reduce the haze from forest fires, but issues throughout the region are still common.[8] Wildfires are started by local farmers during the dry season in Northern Thailand for a variety of purposes,[9][10] with February and March as the two months when conditions are at their worst.[11][12] In a research conducted between 2005 and 2009 in Chiang Mai, average PM10 rates during these months were found to be well above the country's safety level of 120 μg/m3, peaking at 383 μg/m3 on 14 March 2007.[13] They are the main cause of the intense air pollution in the Thai highlands[14] and contribute to the floods in the country by completely denuding the undergrowth of the woods.[15] The dry forest soil leads to lower water intake for the trees to extract when the rains arrive.[16]

Water resources[edit]

Industrial water pollution

The most critical environmental problem that Thailand is facing presently is water pollution.[1] Despite the annual southwest monsoon, Thailand is subject to drought, particularly the northeastern region.[17] As of 2002, Thailand had available less water per person than any other country in Asia, and nearly one-third of its water was “unsuitable for human consumption.”[18] Non-potable water was also a result of increasing untreated domestic sewage, industrial waste water, and solid hazardous wastes.[18]

Like air pollution, water pollution is most serious in the populous central region, with high levels of industrial and domestic waste water. The depletion of the water table around Bangkok has led to land subsidence which has exacerbated flooding.

Coastal waters also face challenges. The Gulf of Thailand is polluted by domestic waste water, and further by waste from industry and tourism. In addition to the gulf, high pollution levels were found at the mouths of the Chao Phraya, Tha Chin, Pak Panang, Pattani, and Ranong rivers. Coastal water quality in most areas, however, is within acceptable limits.

Water pollution has become obvious in many areas. In 1997, hundreds of thousands of fish and other aquatic life in the Nam Phong River died as a result of industrial pollution.[19] Large amounts of arsenic were found in the groundwater in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, a result of mining in the area.[20] Pollution affects the marine environment. Red tides, caused by excessive algae growth and a result of pollution, oil spills, and invasive species are some of the factors that are affecting Thailand's marine biodiversity.[3]

Another major pollution is the heavy metals that have seeped into the rivers of Thailand for many years. In the Chao Phraya estuary, mercury levels have far exceeded normal standards, and high concentrations of heavy metals on the river bed poses a serious threat to ecosystems.[1]

Health effects[edit]

Water pollution results in typhoid, dysentery, hepatitis, trachoma, hookworm, and diarrhea. In 1999, hospitalization rates were:

  • Typhoid: 4,000 hospitalizations
  • Dysentery: 7,000 hospitalizations
  • Diarrhea: 95,000 hospitalizations

Exposure to toxins and heavy metals in water causes skin disease, liver cancer, and birth defects. Klity Creek in Kanchanaburi Province was found to carry dangerous levels of lead from a lead separation plant upstream. Lead levels are apparently the cause of many cases of Down syndrome in village children, unidentified illnesses in adults, and many cattle deaths. In 1998, the plant was closed and the creek dredged, although by 2000 lead levels were still considered unsafe.

Improvement efforts[edit]

In 1992, the government passed several pieces of legislation to prevent water pollution. The laws primarily limit industrial water contamination:

  • Enhancement and Conservation of National Environment Quality Act (NEQA) of 1992
  • Factories Act of 1992
  • Navigation in Thai Waterways Act (Volume 14 ) as amended in 1992
  • Public Health Act of 1992
  • Cleanliness and Tidiness of the Country Act of 1992

The government continues to invest in waste water treatment plants. In 2000, enough treated water was available to support 29% of the population, with more treatment plants under construction. Upon completion, treated water will be able to support 65% of the population. The most common water treatment techniques are inexpensive to build and maintain, including oxidation ditches, aerated lagoons, and stabilization ponds. The government is also investigating more effective and modern techniques such as constructed wetlands.

Wildlife[edit]

Main article: Wildlife of Thailand
Asian elephants

Thailand’s wildlife is threatened by poaching, habitat loss, and an industry that sells wild animals as pets.[21]

The elephant is Thailand's national symbol. Although there were 100,000 elephants in Thailand a century ago, the population of elephants in the wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000.[22] Poachers have long hunted elephants for ivory, meat and hides. Young elephants are often captured for use in tourist attractions or as work animals, although their use has declined since the government banned logging in 1989. There are now more elephants in captivity than in the wild, and environmental activists claim that elephants in captivity are often mistreated.[23]

Poaching of protected species remains a major problem. Hunters have decimated the populations of tigers, leopards and other large cats for their valuable pelts. Many animals (including tigers, bears, crocodiles and king cobras) are farmed or hunted for their meat, which is considered a delicacy, and for their supposed medicinal properties. Although such trade is illegal, the famous Bangkok market Chatuchak is still known for the sale of endangered species.[24][unreliable source?]

The practice of keeping wild animals as pets threatens several species. Baby animals are typically captured and sold, which often requires killing the mother. Once in captivity and out of their natural habitat, many pets die or fail to reproduce. Affected populations include the asiatic black bear, Malayan sun bear, white-handed lar, pileated gibbon and binturong.[21]

Large-scale deforestation and development have encroached on many former wildlife habitats, and pesticides in their food supply has reduced bird populations. Several species of sawfish are listed as critically endangered because of habitat loss and overfishing.[25]

Wildlife conservation[edit]

Conservation efforts by the government include:[26]

  • 1960 Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act
  • 1961 National Park Act
  • 1964 National Forest Reserve Act
  • 1989 Logging ban in natural forests
  • 1992 Forest Plantation Act
  • 1992 Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act
  • 1992 Wild Animals Reservation and Protection Act (WARPA), which forbids or restricts the hunting, breeding, possession, and trade of fifteen reserved animal species and two classes of protected species

Until the acts of 1989 - 1992, conservation policies were difficult to enforce, and often took a back seat to economic development.[27] These acts represented a major shift in Thai policy, and are part of the government’s cooperation with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), an international wildlife protection agreement.

The government now requires that at least 15% of its land area be protected as forest, and 22% is currently protected as wildlife sanctuaries or national parks. To enforce CITES, the government also maintains border checkpoints to prevent animal smuggling, and works to educate the public about wildlife preservation. Thailand’s Buddhist culture, with its emphasis on respect for all life, has become a key component of the country’s conservation efforts.[21]

Actions taken[edit]

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE) arranged activities for the World Environment Day in order to educate and stimulate people to realize the importance and value of biodiversity on the world ecosystem and economy.[28]

Currently, there are MOI agencies that will tackle these environmental issues, including the Department of Industrial Works which will watch the levels of pollution in Thailand and assess the need for licensing. The Office of Industrial Environment Management is responsible for the treatment of hazardous waste. There is a hazardous waste treatment facility in Bangkok and a landfill in Ratchaburi.[29]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Overview of Environmental Issues and Environmental, Conservation Practices in Thailand". Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, MOSTE,. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  2. ^ "Government Policies Pertaining to the Manufacturing Sector". Thailand Gateway. 
  3. ^ a b "Thailand Environment Monitor 2006, Executive Summary: Blue Waters in Peril". World Bank. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  4. ^ "Thailand: Environmental Issues". Australian Volunteers International. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  5. ^ "Thailand Environment Monitor 2006, Executive Summary: Blue Waters in Peril". The World Bank. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  6. ^ "Thailand Environment". The World Bank. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  7. ^ "Environment in East Asia and Pacific". The World Bank. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  8. ^ "UNEP Congratulates ASEAN on Fire Haze Agreement". United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  9. ^ Bangkok Post - PM misses the boat again on northern haze
  10. ^ http://www.dnp.go.th/ForestFire/Eng/cause%20of%20fire.htm
  11. ^ http://www.dnp.go.th/ForestFire/Eng/description.htm
  12. ^ http://www.umad.de/infos/cleanair13/pdf/full_167.pdf
  13. ^ http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/30054.pdf
  14. ^ Mushroom Research Center
  15. ^ National Forest Policy Review- Thailand
  16. ^ "Underlying Causes of Deforestation". UN Secretary-General’s Report. 
  17. ^ "About Thailand: Environment". ThailandOutlook.com. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  18. ^ a b "Thailand Environment Monitor 2001: Water Quality" (PDF). ThailandOutlook.com. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  19. ^ "Thailand Water Pollution Crisis : A Case on Massive Fish Deaths in Nam Phong River". Environmental Health Center Region 6. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  20. ^ "World Water Day 2001: Pollution from industry, mining and agriculture". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  21. ^ a b c "Thai Forests: Dept. National Parks, Wildlife & Plants". Thai Society for the Conservation of Wild Animals. 
  22. ^ "Mobile Elephant Clinic Project". Phuket Elephant Conservation. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  23. ^ Jennifer Hile (2002-10-06). "Activists Denounce Thailand's Elephant "Crushing" Ritual". National Geographic Today. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  24. ^ by Teena Amrit Gill (1997-02-18). "Endangered Animals on Restaurant Menus". Albion Monitor/News. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  25. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN – The World Conservation Union. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  26. ^ "Impacts and effectiveness of logging bans in natural forests". Food and Agriculture of the United Nations. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  27. ^ Pearmsak Makarabhirom. "Conflict Resolution: A case study on sustainable forestry management in Thailand" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  28. ^ Ministry of Natural Resource and Envoronment. "MNREL World Environmental Day 2010: "Biodiversity Saves the Earth"". Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  29. ^ McKEEVER INSTITUTE. "THAILAND: Economic Policy Analysis". Retrieved 2011-09-12. 

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.