List of rulers of Elam

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This is a List of rulers of Elam from earliest times to the Persian Empire. All dates are middle chronology.

Elamite Empire, c. 2700 – 519 BC[edit]

The Elamites were a people located in southwestern Iran, in what is now Khuzestan, Ilam, Fars, Bushehr, Lorestan, Bakhtiari and Kohgiluyeh provinces. Their language was neither Semitic nor Indo-European, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared.

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Old Elamite Period, c. 2700–c. 1500 BC
Early Elamite kings, c. 2700–c. 2600 BC
1 Humbaba  ?–c. 2680 BC c. 2700 BC c. 2680 BC  ? contemporary with Gilgamesh king of Uruk
2 Humban-Shutur (or Khumbastir)  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Awan dynasty,[1][2][3] c. 2600–2078 BC
3 The unnamed King of Awan King of Awan  ?–? c. 2580 BC  ?  ? contemporary with the last king of the first dynasty of Uruk[4]
4 ...Lu King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
5 Kur-Ishshak King of Awan  ?–?  ? c. 2550 BC  ? 36 years. contemporary with Lugal-Anne-Mundu king of Adab & Ur-Nanshe king of Lagash
6 Peli King of Awan  ?–? c. 2500 BC  ?  ?
7 Tata I King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
8 Ukku-Tanhish King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
9 Hishutash King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
10 Shushun-Tarana King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
11 Napi-Ilhush King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
12 Kikku-Siwe-Temti King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
13 Hishep-Ratep I King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
14 Luh-Ishshan King of Awan  ?–c. 2325 BC  ? c. 2325 BC Son of Hishep-Ratep I
15 Hishep-Ratep II King of Awan  ?–? c. 2325 BC  ? Son of Luh-Ishshan
16 Emahsini[5] King of Awan  ?–2311 BC c. 2315 BC 2311 BC
17 Helu King of Awan  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
18 Hita King of Awan  ?–? c. 2270 BC c. 2270 BC  ? contemporary of Naram-Sin king of Akkad
19 Kutik-Inshushinak[6] King of Awan  ?–? c. 2100 BC c. 2100 BC son of Shinpi-hish-huk contemporary of Ur-Nammu king of Ur. Susa conquered by Ur troops in 2078 and 2016 BC
Simashki dynasty,[7][8] c. 2100–c. 1928 BC
20 The unnamed king of Simashki king of Simashki  ?–c. 2100 BC  ? c. 2100 BC  ? cont. Kutik-Inshushinak king of Awan
21 Gir-Namme I king of Simashki  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
22 Tazitta I king of Simashki  ?–? c. 2040 BC[5] c. 2037 BC[5]  ?
23 Eparti I king of Simashki  ?–?  ? c. 2033 BC[5]  ?
24 Gir-Namme II king of Simashki  ?–? c. 2033 BC  ?  ?
25 Tazitta II king of Simashki  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
26 Lurak-Luhhan king of Simashki  ?–2022 BC c. 2028 BC 2022 BC  ?
27 Hutran-Temti king of Simashki  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
28 Indattu-Inshushinak I king of Simashki  ?–2016 BC  ? 2016 BC son of Hutran-Temti
29 Kindattu king of Simashki  ?–? before 2006 BC after 2005 BC son of Tan-Ruhuratir conqueror of Ur
30 Indattu-Inshushinak II king of Simashki  ?–? c. 1980 BC  ? son of Pepi[6] cont. Shu-Ilishu king of Isin & Bilalama king of Eshnunna
32 Tan-Ruhuratir I king of Simashki  ?–? c. 1965 BC  ? son of Indattu-Inshushinnak II cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
33 Indattu-Inshushinak III king of Simashki  ?–?  ?  ? son of Tan-Ruhuratir I more than 3 years
35 Indattu-Napir king of Simashki  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
36 Indattu-Temti king of Simashki  ?–?  ? 1928? BC  ?
Epartid dynasty,[9] c. 1970–c. 1500 BC
31 Eparti II king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah  ?–? c. 1973 BC  ? Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin in 1973 BC.[10] cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
34 Shilhaha king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah  ?–?  ?  ? son of Eparti II
37 Kuk-Nashur I Sukkalmah  ?–?  ?  ? son (ruhushak)[11] of Shilhaha
38 Atta-hushu Sukkal and Ippir of Susa, Shepherd of the people of Susa, Shepherd of Inshushinak  ?–after 1894 BC  ?1928 BC after 1894 BC son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
39 Tetep-Mada Shepherd of the people of Susa  ?–? after c. 1890 BC  ? son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
40 Palar-Ishshan Sukkalmah  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
41 Kuk-Sanit  ?–?  ?  ? son of Palar-Ishshan (?)
42 Kuk-Kirwash Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Lan-Kuku & nephew of Palar-Ishshan
43 Tem-Sanit  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kuk-Kirwash
44 Kuk-Nahhunte  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kuk-Kirwash
45 Kuk-Nashur II Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kuk-Nahhunte (?)
46 Shirukduh Sukkalmah  ?–? c. 1790 BC  ?  ? cont. Shamshi-Adad I king of Assyria
47 Shimut-Wartash I  ?–?  ?  ? son of Shirukduh
48 Siwe-Palar-Hupak Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa, Prince of Elam  ?–? before 1765 BC after 1765 BC son of Shirukduh
49 Kuduzulush I Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Shirukduh
50 Kutir-Nahhunte I Sukkalmah  ?–? c. 1710 BC  ? son of Kuduzulush I
51 Atta-Merra-Halki  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kuduzulush I (?)
52 Tata II Sukkal  ?–?  ?  ? brother of Atta-Merra-Halki
53 Lila-Irtash  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kuduzulush I
54 Temti-Agun Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kutir-Nahhunte I
55 Kutir-Shilhaha Sukkalmah, Sukkal  ?–?  ?  ? son of Temti-Agun
56 Kuk-Nashur III Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Susa  ?–? before 1646 BC after 1646 BC son of Kutir-Shilhaha
57 Temti-Raptash  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kutir-Shilhaha
58 Shimut-Wartash II  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kuk-Nashur III
59 Shirtuh King of Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kuk-Nashur III
60 Kuduzulush II Sukkalmah, King of Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Shimut-Wartash II
61 Tan-Uli Sukkalmah, Sukkal  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
62 Temti-Halki Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Tan-Uli
63 Kuk-Nashur IV[5] Sukkalmah  ?–?  ?  ? son of Tan-Uli
64 Kutik-Matlat[4]  ?–? c. 1500 BC  ? son of Tan-Uli
Middle Elamite Period, c. 1500–c. 1000 BC
Kidinuid dynasty,[9] c. 1500–c. 1400 BC
65 Kidinu king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 15th century BC  ?  ?
66 Inshushinak-Sunkir-Nappipir king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
67 Tan-Ruhuratir II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 15th century BC  ?  ?
68 Shalla king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
76 Temti-Ahar king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1370 BC  ?  ? cont. Kadashman-Enlil I Kassite king of Babylon
Igehalkid dynasty,[9] c. 1400–c. 1200 BC
69 Ata-Halki[12] king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
70 Attar-Kittah I[12] king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Ata-Halki
71 Ige-Halki king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
72 Pahir-Ishshan I king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1390 BC  ? son of Ige-Halki cont. Kurigalzu I Kassite king of Babylon
73 Kidin-Hutran I king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Pahir-Ishshan I[13]
74 Attar-Kittah II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Ige-Halki
75 Humban-Numena I king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1370 BC  ? son of Attar-Kittah II cont. Burna-Buriash II Kassite king of Babylon
77 Untash-Napirisha or Untash-Humban king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1340 BC  ? son of Humban-Numena I
78 Kidin-Hutran II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Untash-Naprisha[13]
79 Napirisha-Untash or Humban-Untash king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Kidin-Hutran II[13]
80 Pahir-Ishshan II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
81 Unpatar-Napirisha or Unpatar-Humban king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Pahir-Ishshan II
82 Kidin-Hutran III king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1224 BC c. 1217 BC son of Pahir-Ishshan II cont. Enlil-nadin-shumi & Adad-shuma-iddina Kassite kings of Babylon[10]
Shutrukid dynasty,[9] c. 1200–c. 970 BC
83 Hallutush-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? c. 1200 BC  ?  ?
84 Shutruk-Nahhunte I king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? before c. 1158 BC after c. 1158 BC son of Hallutush-Inshushinak
85 Kutir-Nahhunte II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? before c. 1155 BC after c. 1155 BC son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
86 Shilhak-Inshushinak I king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
87 Hutelutush-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? before c. 1110 BC after c. 1110 BC son of Kutir-Nahhunte II
88 Shilhina-Hamru-Lakamar king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? after 1110 BC  ? son of Shilhak-Inshushinak I
89 Humban-Numena II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? early 11th century BC  ?  ?
90 Shutruk-Nahhunte II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? middle of 11th century BC  ? son of Humban-Numena II
91 Shutur-Nahhunte I king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? middle of 11th century BC  ? son of Humban-Numena II
92 Mar-biti-apla-usur[14] "son" of Elam  ?–? before 983 BC after 978 BC  ?
 ? Akshir-Shimut king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
 ? Akshir-Nahhunte king of Anshan & Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
 ? Kara-Indash king of Elam  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
Neo-Elamite Period, c. 1000–c. 500 BC
Humban-Tahrid (Neo-Elamite) dynasty,[15] c. 830–521 BC
96 The unnamed king of Elam king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? before c. 821 BC after c. 821 BC  ? cont. Shamshi-Adad V king of Assyria
97 Humban-Tahrah I king of Elam  ?–743 BC  ? 743 BC  ?
98 Humban-Nikash I king of Elam  ?–717 BC 743 BC 717 BC son of Humban-Tahrah I
99 Shutur-Nahhunte II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–699 BC 717 BC 699 BC son (Ruhushak) of Humban-Nikash I
100 Hallushu-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa  ?–oct. 693 BC 699 BC oct. 693 BC brother of Shutur-Nahhunte II
101 Kutir-Nahhunte III king of Anshan & Susa  ?–July 692 BC oct. 693 BC July 692 BC son of Hallushu-Inshushinak
102 Humban-Numena III king of Anshan & Susa  ?–feb. 688 BC July 692 BC feb. 688 BC son of Hallushu-Inshushinak
103 Humban-Haltash I king of Anshan & Susa  ?–oct. 681 BC feb. 688 BC oct. 681 BC son of Humban-Numena III (?)
104 Humban-Haltash II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–sept. 675 BC oct. 681 BC sept. 675 BC son of Humban-Haltash I
105 Urtak-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa  ?–663 BC sept. 675 BC 663 BC brother of Humban-Haltash II
106 Temti-Humban-Inshushinak I king of Anshan & Susa  ?–sept. 653 BC 663 BC sept. 653 BC brother of Urtak-Inshushinak
107 Humban-Nikash II king of Anshan & Susa  ?–651 BC sept. 653 BC 651 BC son of Urtak-Inshushinak
108 Tammaritu king of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC 652 BC 649 BC son of Humban-Hapua son of Urtak-Inshushinak
109 Indabibi king of Anshan & Susa  ?–after July 648 BC 649 BC after July 648 BC  ?
110 Humban-Haltash III king of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC after July 648 BC 645/4 BC son of Atta-hamiti-Inshushinak
108 Tammaritu king of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC 647 BC 647 BC son of Humban-Hapua son of Urtak-Inshushinak
111 Humban-Nikash III king of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC 647 BC 647 BC son of Atta-Merra-Halki
112 Umhuluma king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 647 BC 647 BC  ?
113 Indattu-Inshushinak IV king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 647 BC after autumn 646 BC  ?
114 Humban-Hapua king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? 647 BC 647 BC  ?
115 Pa'e king of Anshan & Susa  ?–after 645/4 BC autumn 646 after 645/4 BC  ?
116 Shutur-Nahhunte III king of Anshan & Susa  ?–? after autumn 646 BC  ? son of Indattu-Inshushinak IV
117 Humban-Kitin king of Susa  ?–? last quarter of 7th century  ? son of Shutur-Nahhunte III
118 Humban-Tahrah II king of Susa  ?–?  ?  ?  ?
119 Hallutash-Inshushinak king of Susa  ?–?  ?  ? son of Humban-Tahrah II
120 Ummanunu I king of Susa  ?–? first quarter of 6th century BC  ?  ?
121 Shilhak-Inshushinak II king of Susa  ?–? first quarter of 6th century BC  ? son of Ummanunu I
122 Temti-Humban-Inshushinak II king  ?–? before 550 BC  ? son of Shilhak-Inshushinak II
123 Halkatash king of Susa  ?–?  ? c. 549/8 BC  ?
124 Açina king of Elam  ?–dec. 522 BC oct. BC 10 dec. 522 BC son of Upadrama
125 Ummanunu II or Humban-Nikash IV (Ummaniš) king of Elam  ?–feb. 521 BC dec. 522 BC feb. 521 BC  ?
126 Atta-hamiti-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa  ?–520/19 BC  ? 520/19 BC son of Hutran-Temti He was also king of Gisati

Minor Elamite Kingdoms, c. 2700 – 519 BC[edit]

Old Elamite Period, c. 2700–c. 1500 BC Middle Elamite Period, c. 1500–c. 1000 BC Neo-Elamite Period, c. 1000 – 519 BC
Hamazi dynasty[16] (c. 2530–c. 2030 BC)

Hamazi probably was located in Lorestan.

  1. Hatanish (7 years fl. c. 2530 BC) [17]
  2. Zizi (precise dates unknown)
  3. Ur-Adad (precise dates unknown)
  4. Ur-Ishkur (before 2041 – after 2037 BC)
  5. Warad-Nannar (after 2037 BC)
Hidalu kingdom, c. 660–c. 6th century BC

Hidalu was located near modern Behbahan.

  1. Shutur-Nahhunte (until 653 BC) brother(?) of Temti-Humban-Inshushinak I
  2. Tammaritu (after Sept. 653 – after 652 BC) son of Urtak-Inshushinak king of Elam
  3. Kurlush (precise dates unknown)
  4. Kidin-Hutran (early 6th century BC) son of Kurlush
Sherihum kingdom,[18] c. 2400–c. 2300 BC

Sherihum is the ancient name of northern areas of Persian Gulf.

  1. [...]hi (c. before 2371 BC)
  2. [...]ru (c. 2316 BC)
  3. The unnamed king of Sherihum (until 2305 BC). Also he was king of Anshan
Rashi kingdom, c. 660–c. 640 BC
  1. Indabibi (before 649 – after July 648) Also the great king of Elam
  2. Imbapi (before 647 – autumn 646 BC) husband of sister of Humban-Haltash III king of Elam
  3. Pa'e (autumn 646 – after 645/4 BC) Also the great king of Elam
Anshan dynasty[3] (c. 2350–c. 1970 BC)

Anshan was located at Marvdasht of Fars near Persepolis.

  1. The unnamed king of Anshan (until 2305 BC) king of Sherihum & Anshan. He was defeated & sent to Akkad.
  2. Shalabum[19] (before 2068 until 2064 BC) married with a daughter of Shulgi king of Ur
  3. Libum[19] (from 2064 BC) made some wars against Ur
  4. The unnamed king of Anshan (c. 2041–2037 BC) married with a daughter of Shu-Sin king of Ur
  5. The unnamed king of Anshan (until 2017 BC) married with a daughter of Ibbi-Sin king of Ur
  6. Imazu (cont. Shu-ilishu king of Isin) restored statue of Nannar to Isin son of Kindattu king of Simashki
  7. Eparti II (cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin) (Sukkalmah & king of Anshan & Susa). Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin in 1973 BC.[20]
Aiapir kingdom, c. 7th century BC

Aiapir is the ancient name of modern Izeh.

  1. Tahhi-hi (precise dates unknown)
  2. Hanne (cont. with Shutur-Nahhunte III king of Elam) son of Tahhi-hi
  3. Zashehshi (precise dates unknown) son of Hanne
Tukrish kingdom, c. 2350–c. 2250 BC

The site of Tukrish is unknown.

  1. Autalummash[21] (c. 2350 BC) Also king of kings of Elam
  2. Immashkush (after 2292 BC)[22]
  3. Kiklipatalish (after 2292 BC)[22]
Gisati kingdom, c. 7th century – 519 BC
  1. Shati-Hupiti (late 7th century BC)
  2. Humban-Shuturuk son of Shati-Hupiti (early 6th century BC)
  3. Hutran-Temti (middle 6th century BC)
  4. Atta-hamiti-Inshushinak son of Hutran-Temti (until 520/19 BC)
Khukhnur kingdom,[18] c. 2350–c. 2000 BC
  1. Zina (c. 2325 BCE)
  2. The unnamed king of Khukhnur (c. 2100 BCE)
  3. The unnamed king of Khukhnur (until 2041 BCE)
  4. Simhuzia (from 2041 BCE)
  5. The unnamed king of Khukhnur (until 2017 BCE)
Elammat kingdom, c. 14th century BC
  1. Hurpatila (c. 1350–c. 1340 BC)
Zamin kingdom, c. 7th century–c. 6th century BC
  1. Bahuri I (late 7th century BC)[23]
  2. Bahuri II (early 6th century BC)[24]
Der kingdom, c. 2350–c. 646 BC

Der was located at modern Ilam province of Iran.

  1. The unnamed king of Der (until c. 2350 BC)
  2. Ursin (from 2050 BC)
  3. The unnamed king of Der (after 2006 BC)
  4. Anum-muttabil (c. 1932–c. 1928 BC)
  5. Manana (c. 1886–c. 1881 BC)
  6. Naqimum (precise dates unknown)
  7. Sumu-iamutbala (c. 1855 BC)
  8. Manium (c. 1849 BC)
  9. Temti-Shilhak (precise dates unknown)
  10. Kutir-Mabuk (c. 1828–1818 BC)
  11. Rim-Sin I (1818 – after 1763 BC)
  12. Rim-Sin II (before 1741–1736 BC)
Der kingdom, c. 2350–c. 646 BC
  1. Lakti-Shikhu (c. 1110 BC)
Der kingdom, c. 2350–c. 646 BC
  1. The unnamed king of Der (until 819 BC)
  2. Tandaia (c. 668 BC)
  3. Tammaritu (648/9–647 BC) brother of Urtak-Inshushinak king of Elam
Adamdun kingdom, c. 2200–c. 2027 BC Samati kingdom, c. 6th century BCغار کلماکره

The remains of kings of Samati have been discovered from a cave near modern Pol-e-Dokhtar.

  1. Dabala[25]
  2. Ampirish[25] son of Dabala
  3. Anni-Shilha[25] son of Dabala
  4. Unzikillik[26] son of Anni-Shilha
  5. Zittiyash[27]
  6. Unsak[28] son of Zittiyash
Simanum kingdom, c. 2050–c. 2000 BC Zari kingdom, c. 6th century BC
  1. Appalaya[29]
Awak kingdom, c. 2050–c. 2000 BC

Kings of Elymais,[30] c. 147 BC – c. 224 AD[edit]

  1. Kamnaskires I Megas Soter (c. 147–c. 145 BC)
  2. Kamnaskires II Nikephoros (c. 145–c. 139 BC)
  3. Okkonapses (c. 139/8 BC)
  4. Tigraios (c. 138/7–c. 133/2 bc)
  5. Darius (before c. 129 BC)
  6. Kamnaskires III Megas Nikephorus (c. 85 BC)
  7. Kamnaskires IV (c. 82/1–c. 76/5 BC) with Anzaze (his Queen)
  8. Kamnaskires V[31] (c. 73/2–c. 46 BC)
  9. Kamnaskires VI[32] (c. 46–c. 28 BC)
  10. Kamnaskires VII[33] (c. 28 BC–c. 1 AD)
  11. Kamnaskires VIII[34] (c. 1–c. 15 AD)
  12. Kamnaskires IX[35] (c. 15–c. 25 AD)
  13. Orodes I (c. 25–c. 50 AD)
  14. Orodes II (c. 50–c. 70 AD), son of Orodes I
  15. Phraates[36] (c. 70–c. 90 AD), son of Orodes (I or II)
  16. Orodes III[37] (c. 90–c. 100 AD), son of Orodes II
  17. Kamnaskires-Orodes[38] (c. 100–c. 120 AD), son of Orodes II
  18. Ariobarzanes (c. 125 AD)
  19. Osroes (c. 125–c. 130 AD)
  20. Unknown King I (c. 130–c. 140 AD)
  21. Orodes IV[39] & Ulpan (c. 140–c. 160 AD)
  22. Abarbasi[40] (c. 160–c. 170 AD)
  23. Orodes V[41] (c. 170–c. 180 AD), son of Beldusa
  24. Vologases[42] (c. 180–c. 190 AD)
  25. Unknown King II[43] (c. 190–c. 210 AD)
  26. Unknown King III[44] (c. 210–c. 220 AD)
  27. Orodes VI[45] (c. 220 – 224 AD)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Awan's geographical site is unknown. But it is very probable that it was near Poshtkuh of Lorestan.
  2. ^ The first three kings of Awan were also kings of Mesopotamia.
  3. ^ a b Legrain, 1922; Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat "Elam ...", 1998.
  4. ^ a b Cameron, 1936.
  5. ^ a b c d e Potts, 1999.
  6. ^ a b Hinz, 1972.
  7. ^ Some archaeologists have suggested that Simashki was located in the north of Elam and Anshan near modern Isfahan.
  8. ^ Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat "Elam ...", 1998.
  9. ^ a b c d Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  10. ^ a b Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  11. ^ "Ruhushak" means son of sister but probably it refers to a dynastical marriage between siblings. See Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  12. ^ a b Majidzadeh, 1991.
  13. ^ a b c Vallat , Francois. Elam: The History of Elam.
  14. ^ He was also king of Babylon.
  15. ^ Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Vallat, 1995; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998; Reade, 2000; Henkelman, 2003; Tavernier, 2004.
  16. ^ Legrain, 1922; Cameron, 1936; D’yakonov, 1956; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat "Elam ...", 1998.
  17. ^ He was also king of Mesopotamia.
  18. ^ a b Legrain, 1922; Cameron, 1936; D’yakonov, 1956; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History
  19. ^ a b Legrain, 1922.
  20. ^ Vallat , "Elam ...", 1998.
  21. ^ Cameron, 1936, Persian tr. P. 180
  22. ^ a b Cameron, 1936, Persian tr. p.181.
  23. ^ Vallat, 1998. Reade, 2000. Henkelman, 2003. Tavernier, 2004.
  24. ^ Vallat, "Zamin ...", 1998. Reade, 2000. Henkelman, 2003. Tavernier, 2004.
  25. ^ a b c Vallat, 1996. Tavernier, 2004.
  26. ^ Vallat, 1996.
  27. ^ Vallat, 2002.
  28. ^ Vallat, 2002. Tavernier, 2004.
  29. ^ Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998. Henkelman, 2003. Tavernier, 2004.
  30. ^ Wiesehöfer, 1996, p. 318. Pakzadian, 2007, pp. 56-57 & VII-X.
  31. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires V, VI, VII, VIII and IX.
  32. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires X and XI.
  33. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires XII and XIII.
  34. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires XIV and XV.
  35. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Late Kamnaskires Successors types 1, 2 and 3.
  36. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Phraates I, II and III.
  37. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Orodes III and IV.
  38. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Kamnaskires-Orodes I and II.
  39. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Orodes V, VI and VII.
  40. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: 1st Unknown King (A)
  41. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Unknown Kings 2nd(B), 3rd(C) and 4th(D)
  42. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Vologases I and II.
  43. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Unknown Kings 5th(E), 6th(F) and 7th(G)
  44. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: Unknown Kings 8th(H) and 9th(I)
  45. ^ According to Pakzadian, 2007: 10th Unknown King (J)

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