Zeus on his throne with his eagle
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The ephors (Greek Ἔφορος) (from the Greek ἐπί epi, "on" or "over", and ὁράω horaō, "to see", i.e. "one who oversees") were leaders of ancient Sparta and shared power with the Spartan kings. Five ephors were elected annually, who "swore on behalf of the city", while the kings swore for themselves.
Herodotus claimed that the institution was created by Lycurgus, while Plutarch considers it a later institution. It may have arisen from the need for governors while the kings were leading armies in battle. The ephors were elected by the popular assembly, and all citizens were eligible for election. They were forbidden to be reelected. They provided a balance for the two kings, who rarely cooperated with each other. Plato called them tyrants who ran Sparta as despots, while the kings were little more than generals. Up to two ephors would accompany a king on extended military campaigns as a sign of control, even gaining the ability to declare war at some points in Spartan history.
The ephors did not have to kneel down before the Kings of Sparta and were held in high esteem by the citizens, because of the importance of their powers and because of the holy role they earned throughout their functions. Since decisions were made by majority vote, this could mean that Sparta's policy could change quickly, when the vote of one ephor changed (e.g. in 403 BC when Pausanias convinced three of the ephors to send an army to Attica). This was a complete turnaround to the politics of Lysander.
Cleomenes III abolished the ephors in 227 BC, but they were restored by the Macedonian king Antigonus III Doson after the Battle of Sellasia in 222 BC. While Sparta fell under Roman rule in 146 BC, the position existed into the 2nd century AD, when it was probably abolished by the Roman emperor Hadrian and superseded by Imperial governance as part of the province of Achaea.
In popular culture
- In Frank Miller's graphic novel 300, and its film adaptation, the Ephors are inaccurately portrayed as the priests who maintain the shrine of the Oracle, who must approve any military venture by Sparta. They are described as diseased, leprous, old and perverted men who deliberately select young, beautiful girls as oracles in order to fulfill their sexual needs. They are also portrayed as corrupt, requiring payment in gold from Leonidas before consulting the oracle, and accepting a much larger bribe from the Persian Empire to deny him permission to mobilize Sparta's army.
- Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta they collected taxes and in forced laws in Sparta. 15.7
- Life of Lycurgus, 28, 3–7
- Xenophon, Constitution of Sparta 15.6; Xenophon, Hellenica 2.3.9–10; Plutarch, Agis 12.1, 16.2; Plato, Laws 3.692; Aristotle, The Politics 2.6.14–16; A.H.M. Jones, Sparta (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1967), p. 26; Robert Struble, Jr., Treatise on Twelve Lights, chapter six, subsection entitled "Ancient Greece".
- Donald Kagan, The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. page 29. Ithaca/New York 1969, ISBN 0-8014-9556-3.