Ephraim McDowell (November 11, 1771 – June 25, 1830) was an American physician. He was the first to successfully remove an ovarian tumor.
Ephraim McDowell was born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, the ninth child of Samuel and Mary McDowell. His father was a veteran of the French and Indian War and a colonel during the American Revolution. In 1784 Samuel McDowell was appointed land commissioner and moved his family to Danville, Kentucky. There, he presided over ten conventions that resulted in the drafting of the Kentucky Constitution.
Ephraim McDowell received his early education at the classical seminary of Worley and James, then spent three years as a medical student under Dr. Alexander Humphreys in Staunton, Virginia. He attended lectures in medicine at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, from 1793 to 1794 and studied privately with John Bell. He never received a diploma, but in 1825, the University of Maryland conferred on him an honorary M.D. degree.
In 1795, he returned from Scotland, settled in Danville, Kentucky and began his practice as a surgeon. In 1802, he married Sarah Shelby, daughter of Isaac Shelby, war hero and twice governor of Kentucky. They had two sons and four daughters.
Dr. McDowell played a prominent role in his community. He was a founder of Trinity Episcopal Church in Danville, donating the land for its first building. He was also a founder, original corporator, and member of the primary board of trustees of Centre College in Danville. Dr. McDowell became a member of the Philadelphia Medical Society in 1817.
Dr. McDowell was the great great grandfather of General John Campbell Greenway, whose statue was placed in the National Statuary Hall Collection by the state of Arizona in 1930. He was cousin to woman's suffrage leader Madeline McDowell Breckinridge.
In June 1830 Dr. McDowell was stricken with an acute attack of violent pain, nausea, and fever. He died on June 25, most likely a victim of appendicitis. His wife died 18 years later. They were buried at "Traveller's Rest" the homestead of Isaac Shelby south of Danville, but reinterred in 1879 near a monument dedicated to him in Danville.
On December 13, 1809, Dr. McDowell was called to see Jane Todd Crawford in Green County, Kentucky, 60 miles (97 km) from Danville. Her physicians thought that Mrs. Crawford was beyond term pregnant. Dr. McDowell diagnosed an ovarian tumor. She begged him to keep her from a slow and painful death. He then described her condition and that an operation for cure had never been performed. He said that the best surgeons in the world thought it impossible. Mrs. Crawford said she understood and wanted to proceed. Dr. McDowell told her he would remove the tumor if she would travel to his home in Danville. She agreed and rode the sixty miles on horseback.
On Christmas morning, 1809, Dr. McDowell began his operation. The surgery was performed without benefit of anesthetic or antisepsis, neither of which was then known to the medical profession. The tumor Dr. McDowell removed weighed 22.5 pounds (10.2 kg). He determined that it would be difficult to remove it completely. So he tied a ligature around the fallopian tube near the uterus and cut open the tumor. He described the tumor as the ovarium and fimbrious part of the fallopian tube very much enlarged. The whole procedure took 25 minutes. Mrs. Crawford made an uncomplicated recovery. She returned to her home in Green County 25 days after the operation and lived another 32 years. This was the first successful removal of an ovarian tumor in the world. 
All attempts at abdominal exploration before 1809 had resulted in peritonitis and death. So, understanding the procedures taken by Dr. McDowell is important. Descriptions of McDowell include phrases like "neat and clean" or "scrupulously clean." He was not only neat, but meticulous. In his report on the operation, he described the removal of blood from the peritoneal cavity and bathing the intestines with warm water. 
McDowell did not publish a description of his procedure until 1817, after he had performed two more such operations. This was widely criticised in the English surgical literature. There is evidence that he performed at least twelve operations for ovarian pathology.
"Having never seen so large a substance extracted, nor heard of an attempt, or success attending any operation such as this required, I gave to the unhappy woman information of her dangerous situation. The tumor appeared full in view, but was so large we could not take it away entire. We took out fifteen pounds of a dirty, gelatinous looking substance. After which we cut through the fallopian tube, and extracted the sac, which weighed seven pounds and one half. In five days I visited her, and much to my astonishment found her making up her bed." 
- In 1879, a monument in his honor was erected by the Medical Society of Kentucky in Danville.
- In 1929, Isaac Wolfe Bernheim donated a bronze statue of McDowell by Charles Henry Niehaus to the state of Kentucky for placement in the U.S. Capitol's National Statuary Hall Collection.
- In 1959, on December 30, the U.S. Post office first issued a 4-cent commemorative stamp honoring Ephraim McDowell, in the Danville, Kentucky, post office, marking the 150th anniversary of the first successful ovarian operation.
- Dr. McDowell's house, office, and apothecary in Danville are preserved as a museum and are designated a National Historic Landmark.
- Ephraim McDowell Regional Medical Center in Danville is named in his honor.
- Ridenbaugh, Mary (1897). Biography of Ephraim McDowell M.D., "the Father of Ovariotomy". New York, New York: McDowell Publishing Company.
- Borneman, Walter R. (2008). Polk: The Man Who Transformed the Presidency and America. New York: Random House, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4000-6560-8.
- New International Encyclopedia
- Othersen, H Biemann (May 2004). "Ephraim McDowell The Qualities of a Good Surgeon". Annals of Surgery 239 (5): 648–650. doi:10.1097/01.sla.0000124382.04128.5a. PMC 1356272. PMID 15082968.
- Bowra, Jean (2005-10-28). "Making a man, a great man: Ephraim McDowell, ovariotomy and history". Social Change in the 21st Century Conference. Brisbane Australia: Queensland University of Technology. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
- "Ephraim McDowell (1771–1830)". surgical-tutor.org.uk. 2008-01-05. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
- McDowell, Ephraim (1817). "Three cases of extirpation of diseased ovaria". Eclectic Repertory Anal Rev (7): 242–4.
- "Dr. Ephraim McDowell Issue". Smithsonian National Stamp Museum. Retrieved Sept.24, 2013.
- "Ephraim McDowell House Museum".
- McCormack, Mrs. Arthur Thomas (October 1930). "The Dr. Ephraim McDowell Memorial in Richmond Kentucky". Filson Club Historical Quarterly 4 (4). Retrieved 2011-11-29.
- McCormack, Mrs. Arthur Thomas (April 1932). "Our Pioneer Heroine of Surgery, Mrs. Jane Todd Crawford". Filson Club Historical Quarterly 6 (2). Retrieved 2011-11-29.