|Population statistics (as of 2011)|
|- Area:||338.1 km2 (131 sq mi)|
|- Density:||24 /km2 (62 /sq mi)|
|Time zone:||EET/EEST (UTC+2/3)|
|Sanctuary of Asklepeios at Epidaurus|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Criteria||i, ii, iii, iv, vi|
|UNESCO region||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1988 (12th Session)|
Epidaurus (//; Greek: Επίδαυρος, Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece, at the Saronic Gulf. Two modern towns bear the name Epidauros (Επίδαυρος): Palaia Epidauros and Nea Epidauros. Since 2010 they belong to the new municipality of Epidaurus, part of the regional unit of Argolis. The seat of the municipality is the town Asklipieion.
Epidaurus was not independent of Argos and not included in Argolis until the time Greece was occupied by the Romanas Romans. With its supporting territory, it formed the small territory called Epidauria. Reputed to be the birthplace of Apollo's son Asclepeios, the healer, Epidaurus was known for its sanctuary situated about five miles (8 km) from the town, as well as its theater, which is once again in use today. The cult of Asclepeios at Epidauros is attested in the 6th century BC, when the older hill-top sanctuary of Apollon Maleatas was no longer spacious enough.
The asclepieion at Epidaurus was the most celebrated healing center of the Classical world, the place where ill people went in the hope of being cured. To find out the right cure for their ailments, they spent a night in the enkoimeteria, a big sleeping hall. In their dreams, the God himself would advise them what they had to do to regain their health. Found in the sanctuary, there was a guest house for 160 guestrooms. There are also mineral springs in the vicinity which may have been used in healing.
Asclepeios, the most important healer god of antiquity, brought prosperity to the sanctuary, which in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC embarked on an ambitious building program for enlarging and reconstruction of monumental buildings. Fame and prosperity continued throughout the Hellenistic period. In 87 BC the sanctuary was looted by the Roman general Sulla, and in 67 BC, it was plundered by pirates. In the 2nd century AD, the sanctuary enjoyed a new upsurge under the Romans, but in AD 395 the Goths raided the sanctuary.
The prosperity brought by the Asklepieion enabled Epidaurus to construct civic monuments too: the huge theatre that delighted Pausanias for its symmetry and beauty, which is used once again for dramatic performances, the ceremonial Hestiatoreion (banqueting hall), baths and a palaistra. The theater was designed by Polykleitos the Younger in the 4th century BC. The original 34 rows were extended in Roman times by another 21 rows. As is usual for Greek theatres (and as opposed to Roman ones), the view on a lush landscape behind the skênê is an integral part of the theatre itself and is not to be obscured. It seats up to 15,000 people.
The theatre is marveled for its exceptional acoustics, which permit perfect intelligibility of unamplified spoken word from the proskenion or skênê to all 15,000 spectators, regardless of their seating (see Ref., in Greek). Famously, tour guides have their groups scattered in the stands and show them how they can easily hear the sound of a match struck at center-stage. A 2007 study by Nico F. Declercq and Cindy Dekeyser of the Georgia Institute of Technology indicates that the astonishing acoustic properties may be the result of the advanced design: The rows of limestone seats filter out low-frequency sounds, such as the murmur of the crowd, and amplify high-frequency sounds from the stage.
The municipality Epidaurus (Epidauros) was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units:
- Detailed census results 2011 (Greek)
- Kallikrates law Greece Ministry of Interior (Greek)
- Chao, Tom (2007-04-05). "Mystery of Greek Amphitheatre's Amazing Sound Finally Solved". LiveScience. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
- Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (Greek)
- Arafat, K. W. 1995. Die Skulpturen des Asklepiostempels in Epidauros. Classical Review, 45, no. 1, pp. 197–198.
- Holland, Leicester B. 1948. Thymele: Recherches sur la of Archaeology, 85, no. 3, pp. 387–400.
- Vassilantonopoulos S. L., Zakynthinos T., Hatziantoniou P. D., Tatlas N.-A., Skarlatos D., Mourjopoulos J. N., “Measurement and Analysis of Acoustics of Epidauros Theatre”, presented at the Hellenic Institute of Acoustics 2004 conference (in Greek), Thessalonica.
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