Epidemiology of asthma

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Disability-adjusted life year for asthma per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[1]
  no data
  <100
  100–150
  150–200
  200–250
  250–300
  300–350
  350–400
  400–450
  450–500
  500–550
  550–600
  >600

As of 2011, ~235 million people worldwide were affected by asthma,[2] and approximately 250,000 people die per year from the disease.[3] Low and middle income countries make up more than 80% of the mortality.[4] Rates vary between countries with prevalences between 1 and 18%.[3] It is more common in developed than developing countries.[3] One thus sees lower rates in Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa.[5] Within developed countries it is more common among those who are economically disadvantaged while in contrast in developing countries it is more common amongst the affluent.[3] The reason for these differences is not well known.[3]

While asthma is twice as common in boys as girls,[3] severe asthma occurs at equal rates.[6] In contrast adult women have a higher rate of asthma than men.[3] Asthma is more common in the young than the old.[5]

Increasing frequency[edit]

The prevalence of childhood asthma in the United States has increased since 1980, especially in younger children.

Rates of asthma have increased significantly between the 1960s and 2008[7][8] with it being recognized as a major public health problem since the 1970s.[5] Some 9% of US children had asthma in 2001, compared with just 3.6% in 1980. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that some 10% of the Swiss population have asthma as of 2007, compared with 2% some 25–30 years ago.[9] In the United States the age-adjusted prevalence of asthma increased from 7.3 to 8.2 percent during the years 2001 through 2009 .[10]

Country specific data[edit]

Asthma affects approximately 7% of the population of the United States and causes approximately 4,210 deaths per year. [11][12][13] In 2005, asthma affected more than 22 million people, including 6 million children, and accounted for nearly 500,000 hospitalizations that same year.[14] In 2010, asthma accounted for more than one-quarter of admitted emergency department visits in the U.S. among children aged 1-9 years, and it was a frequent diagnosis among children aged 10-17 years.[15] From 2000 through 2010, the rate of pediatric hospital stays for asthma declined from 165 to 130 per 100,000 population, respectively, whereas the rate for adults remained about 119 per 100,000 population.[16]

Asthma prevalence in the U.S. is higher than in most other countries in the world, but varies drastically between ethnic populations.[17] Asthma prevalence is highest in Puerto Ricans, African Americans, Filipinos, Irish Americans, and Native Hawaiians, and lowest in Mexicans and Koreans.[18][19][20] Rates of asthma-related hospital admissions in 2010 were more than three times higher among African American children and two times higher for African American adults compared with White and Asian and Pacific Islander patients.[21]

Asthma prevalence also differs between populations of the same ethnicity who are born and live in different places.[22] U.S.-born Mexican populations, for example, have higher asthma rates than non-U.S. born Mexican populations that are living in the U.S.[23]

Asthma affects approximately 5% of the United Kingdom’s population.[24] In England, an estimated 261,400 people were newly diagnosed with asthma in 2005; 5.7 million people had an asthma diagnosis and were prescribed 32.6 million asthma-related prescriptions.[25]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved November 11, 2009. 
  2. ^ "World Health Organization Fact Sheet Fact sheet No 307: Asthma". 2009. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g GINA 2011, pp. 2–5
  4. ^ World Health Organization. "WHO: Asthma". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  5. ^ a b c Murray and Nadel's textbook of respiratory medicine. (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. 2010. pp. Chapter 38. ISBN 1416047107.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  6. ^ Bush A, Menzies-Gow A; Menzies-Gow (December 2009). "Phenotypic differences between pediatric and adult asthma". Proc Am Thorac Soc 6 (8): 712–9. doi:10.1513/pats.200906-046DP. PMID 20008882. 
  7. ^ Grant EN, Wagner R, Weiss KB; Wagner; Weiss (August 1999). "Observations on emerging patterns of asthma in our society". J Allergy Clin Immunol 104 (2 Pt 2): S1–S9. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(99)70268-X. PMID 10452783. 
  8. ^ Anandan C, Nurmatov U, van Schayck OC, Sheikh A; Nurmatov; Van Schayck; Sheikh (February 2010). "Is the prevalence of asthma declining? Systematic review of epidemiological studies". Allergy 65 (2): 152–67. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02244.x. PMID 19912154. 
  9. ^ World Health Organization (2007). Global surveillance, prevention and control of chronic respiratory diseases: a comprehensive approach (PDF). pp. 15–20, 49. ISBN 978-92-4-156346-8. Archived from the original on 18 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-14. 
  10. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (May 2011). "Vital signs: asthma prevalence, disease characteristics, and self-management education: United States, 2001–2009". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 60 (17): 547–52. PMID 21544044. 
  11. ^ Fanta CH (March 2009). "Asthma". New England Journal of Medicine 360 (10): 1002–14. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0804579. PMID 19264689. 
  12. ^ Lazarus SC (August 2010). "Clinical practice. Emergency treatment of asthma". N. Engl. J. Med. 363 (8): 755–64. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1003469. PMID 20818877. 
  13. ^ Getahun D, Demissie K, Rhoads GG; Demissie; Rhoads (2005). "Recent trends in asthma hospitalization and mortality in the United States". Journal of asthma 42 (5): 373–8. doi:10.1081/JAS-62995. PMID 16036412. 
  14. ^ NHLBI Guideline 2007, p. 1
  15. ^ Wier LM, Hao Y, Owens P, Washington R. Overview of Children in the Emergency Department, 2010. HCUP Statistical Brief #157. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. May 2013. [1]
  16. ^ Barrett ML, Wier LM, and Washington R. (January 2014). "Trends in Pediatric and Adult Hospital Stays for Asthma, 2000-2010.". HCUP Statistical Brief #169. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 
  17. ^ Gold DR, Wright R; Wright (2005). "Population disparities in asthma". Annu Rev Public Health 26: 89–113. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144528. PMID 15760282. 
  18. ^ Lara M, Akinbami L, Flores G,Morgenstern H; Akinbami; Flores; Morgenstern (2006). "Heterogeneity of childhood asthma among Hispanic children: Puerto Rican children bear a disproportionate burden". Pediatrics 117 (1): 43–53. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1714. PMID 16396859. 
  19. ^ Davis AM, Kreutzer R, Lipsett M, King G,Shaikh N; Kreutzer; Lipsett; King; Shaikh (2006). "Asthma prevalence in Hispanic and Asian American ethnic subgroups: results from the California Healthy Kids Survey". Pediatrics 118 (2): e363–70. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2687. PMID 16882779. 
  20. ^ Johnson DB, Oyama N, LeMarchand L,Wilkens L; Oyama; Lemarchand; Wilkens (2004). "Native Hawaiians mortality, morbidity, and lifestyle: comparing data from 1982, 1990, and 2000". Pac Health Dialog 11 (2): 120–30. PMID 16281689. 
  21. ^ Barrett ML, Wier LM, and Washington R. (January 2014). "Trends in Pediatric and Adult Hospital Stays for Asthma, 2000-2010.". HCUP Statistical Brief #169. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 
  22. ^ Gold DR, Acevedo-Garcia D; Acevedo-Garcia (2005). "Immigration to the United States and acculturation as risk factors for asthma and allergy". J Allergy Clin Immunol 116 (1): 38–41. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.04.033. PMID 15990770. 
  23. ^ Eldeirawi KM, Persky VW; Persky (2006). "Associations of acculturation and country of birth with asthma and wheezing in Mexican American youths". J Asthma 43 (4): 279–86. doi:10.1080/0277090060022869. PMID 16809241. 
  24. ^ Anderson, HR; Gupta R; Strachan DP; Limb ES (January 2007). "50 years of asthma: UK trends from 1955 to 2004". Thorax 62 (1): 85–90. doi:10.1136/thx.2006.066407. PMC 2111282. PMID 17189533. 
  25. ^ Simpson CR, Sheikh A; Sheikh (2010). "Trends in the epidemiology of asthma in England: a national study of 333,294 patients". J R Soc Med 103 (3): 98–106. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2009.090348. PMC 3072257. PMID 20200181. 
References