Epidemiology of attention deficit hyperactive disorder
ADHD is estimated to affect about 6 to 7 percent of people aged 18 and under when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria. Hyperkinetic disorder when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria give rates of between 1 to 2 percent in this age group.
Children in North America appear to have a higher rate of ADHD than children in Africa and the Middle East - however, this may be due to differing methods of diagnosis used in different areas of the world. If the same diagnostic methods are used rates are more or less the same between countries.
Rates in Spain are estimated at 6.8% among people under 18.
In the United States it is diagnosed in 2-16 percent of school children. The rates of diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are much higher on the east coast of the United States than on its west coast. The frequency of the diagnosis differs between male children (10%) and female children (4%) in the United States. This difference between genders may reflect either a difference in susceptibility or that females with ADHD are less likely to be diagnosed than males.
Rates of ADHD diagnosis and treatment have increased in both the United Kingdom and the United States since the 1970s. This is believed to be primarily due to changes in how the condition is diagnosed and how readily people are willing to treat it with medications rather than a true change in the frequency. In the UK an estimated 0.5 per 1,000 children had ADHD in the 1970s, while 3 per 1,000 received ADHD medications in the late 1990s. In the UK in 2003, 3.6 percent of male children and less than 1 percent in female children had the diagnosis.:134 In the United States the number of children with the diagnosis increase from 12 per 1000 in the 1970s to 34 per 1000 in the late 1990s, to 95 per 1,000 in 2007, and 110 per 1,000 in 2011. It is believed that the changes to the diagnostic criteria in 2013 from the DSM 4TR to the DSM 5 will increase the number of people with ADHD especially among adults.
- Willcutt EG (July 2012). "The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review". Neurotherapeutics 9 (3): 490–9. doi:10.1007/s13311-012-0135-8. PMID 22976615.
- Cowen, Philip (2012). Shorter Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (6th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 546. ISBN 9780191626753.
- Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA (June 2007). "The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis". The American Journal of Psychiatry 164 (6): 942–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.6.942. PMID 17541055.
- Jones, edited by Ming Tsuang, Mauricio Tohen, Peter B. Textbook of psychiatric epidemiology (3rd ed. ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 450. ISBN 9780470977408.
- Bakare, MO (2012 Sep). "Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder (ADHD) among African children: a review of epidemiology and co-morbidities.". African journal of psychiatry 15 (5): 358–61. PMID 23044891.
- Catalá-López, F; Peiró, S; Ridao, M; Sanfélix-Gimeno, G; Gènova-Maleras, R; Catalá, MA (2012 Oct 12). "Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in Spain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.". BMC psychiatry 12: 168. PMID 23057832.
- "CDC – ADHD, Prevalence – NCBDDD".
- Rader, R; McCauley, L; Callen, EC (2009 Apr 15). "Current strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.". American family physician 79 (8): 657–65. PMID 19405409.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (October 17, 2013). "ADHD Home". United States: CDC.gov.
- CDC (March 2004). "Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey, 2002" (PDF). Vital and Health Statistics (United States: CDC) 10 (221).
- Staller J, Faraone SV (2006). "Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in girls: epidemiology and management". CNS Drugs 20 (2): 107–23. doi:10.2165/00023210-200620020-00003. PMID 16478287.
- "ADHD Throughout the Years". Center For Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (24 September 2008). "CG72 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): full guideline" (PDF). NHS.
- "Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. May 13, 2013.
- Schwarz, Alan (Mar 31, 2013). "A.D.H.D. Seen in 11% of U.S. Children as Diagnoses Rise". New York Times. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Dalsgaard, S (2013 Feb). "Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).". European child & adolescent psychiatry. 22 Suppl 1: S43–8. PMID 23202886.