Epidemiology of motor vehicle collisions
Worldwide it was estimated that 1.2 million people were killed and 50 million more were injured in motor vehicle collisions in 2004. This makes motor vehicle collisions the leading cause of death among children 10 – 19 years of age (260,000 children die a year, 10 million are injured) and the sixth leading preventable cause of death in the United States (45,800 people died and 2.4 million were injured in 2005). It is estimated that motor vehicle collisions caused the death of around 60 million people during the 20th century around the same number of World War II casualties.
Modern accident statistics often focus on reportable injury accidents (which include deaths) rather than reporting on deaths alone. It is believed that serious accidents are often significantly under-reported, under-recorded and misclassified and that the completeness of reporting may vary over time and between sources.
Road toll figures in developed nations show that car collision fatalities have declined since 1980. Japan is an extreme example, with road deaths decreasing to 5,115 in 2008, which is 25% of the 1970 rate per capita and 17% of the 1970 rate per vehicle distance travelled. In 2008, for the first time, more pedestrians than vehicle occupants were killed in Japan by cars. Besides improving general road conditions like lighting and separated walkways, Japan has been installing intelligent transportation system technology such as stalled-car monitors to avoid crashes.
In developing nations, statistics may be grossly inaccurate or hard to get. Some nations have not significantly reduced the total death rate, which stands at 12,000 in Thailand in 2007, for example.
In the United States, twenty-eight states had reductions in the number of automobile accident fatalities between 2005 and 2006. 55% of vehicle occupants 16 years or older in 2006 were not using seat belts when they crashed.
Proportion of deaths by type of impact
Crashes are categorized by what is struck and the direction of impact, or impacts. These are some common crash types, based on the total number that occurred in the U.S.A. in 2005, the percentage of total crashes, and the percentage of fatal crashes:[dead link]
- Rear impacts (1,824,000 crashes, 29.6% of all US crashes, 5.4% of US fatal crashes)
- Angle or side impacts (1,779,000 crashes, 28.9% of all US crashes, 20.7% of US fatal crashes)
- Run-off-road collisions (992,000 crashes, 16.1% of US crashes, 31.7% of US fatal crashes)
- Collisions with animals (275,000 crashes, 4.5% of US crashes, 0.4% of fatal crashes)
- Rollovers (141,000 crashes, 2.3% of all US crashes, 10.9% of US fatal crashes)
- Head-on collision (123,000 crashes, only 2.0% of all US crashes, but 10.1% of US fatal crashes)
- Collisions with pedestrians and bicyclists (114,000 crashes, only 1.8% of US crashes, but 13.5% of US fatal crashes)
- Back-up collisions killed 221 people in the US in 2007, and injured about 14,400. This is one of the most common types of non-traffic auto collision in which road workers and children 15 and younger are killed.
Rollover, head-on, pedestrian, and bicyclist crashes combined are only 6.1% of all crashes, but cause 34.5% of traffic-related fatalities.
Sometimes the vehicles in the collision can suffer more than one type of impact, such as during a shunt or high-speed spin. This is called a "second harmful event," such as when a vehicle is redirected by the first crash into another vehicle or fixed object.
Statistics in Europe
(thousands of km²)
|Vehicles in circulation
of the road network (kilometers)
(millions of vehicles x km)
|Nb of the vehic.
for 100 inhabitants
|Killed for million
|Killed for billion of km travelled|
|Republic of Ireland||71||4.1||58.6||1,937||95,752||37,840||46.7||96.2||10.5|
|Partial Total Eu (20 countries)||3809||451.1||118.4||269,158||4,631,781||3,451,938||59.7||87.5||11.6|
Source IRTAD for the following data :
Number of vehicles : 2005 except Ireland 2003 ; Luxembourg 2004 ; Slovakia 2002.
Length of the network: 2005 except Hungary and Luxembourg 2004 ; Germany and Denmark 2003 ; Slovakia 2002 ; Iceland 2000 ; Ireland 2001 ; Netherlands 1999 ; Greece and United Kingdom 1998 ; Portugal 1993 ; Italy 1992. Distance in Kilometres : 2005 except Denmark 2004 ; Italy and Netherlands 2003 ; Ireland 2001 ; Iceland and Slovakia 2000 ; United Kingdom and Greece 1998.
Population : source IRTAD except for Ireland, Luxembourg, Slovakia, Sweden, Iceland and Norway: source INED.
- List of motor vehicle deaths in Australia by year
- List of motor vehicle deaths in Japan by year
- List of motor vehicle deaths in U.S. by year
- "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2004. Retrieved 11 Nov 2009.
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- Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL (March 2004). "Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000". JAMA 291 (10): 1238–45. doi:10.1001/jama.291.10.1238. PMID 15010446.
- "Report on Injuries in America :: Making Our World Safer".
- Simpson, H F. Comparison of hospital and police casualty data: a national study (TRL Report 173 ed.). Transport Research Laboratory. "there may be 2.76 times as many seriously injured casualties than are recorded in the national casualty figures and 1.70 slight casualties"
- Gill, Goldacre, & Yeates (23 June 2006). "Changes in safety on England's roads: analysis of hospital statistics". British medical Journal.
- Pedestrians become chief victims of road accident deaths in 2008
- 365 Days for Stopping Accident Deaths
- People Killed in Motor Vehicle Crashes, by State, 2005-2006
- NCSA Research Note (DOT-HS-810-948). US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. May 2008.
- Adams, John. "Smeed's Law : some further thoughts" (PDF). University College London.
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Traffic Safety Facts 2005, 2007, P. 54. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/TSF2006.PDF
- The Risk of Reverse. New York Times 10 April 2009.
- PDF NIOSH, April 2001.