Epifanio de los Santos

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For the major road, see Epifanio de los Santos Avenue. For LRT-1 station, see EDSA LRT Station.
Epifanio de los Santos y Cristóbal
PH nhi epifanio de los santos.jpg
Born (1871-04-07)April 7, 1871
Malabon, Philippines, Spanish East Indies
Died April 18, 1928(1928-04-18) (aged 57)
Manila (in office)
Other names Don Pañong, G. Solon (pen name), Señor de los Santos, ED or EDS (acronym)
Alma mater University of Santo Tomas Ateneo Municipal de Manila
Occupation Writer, researcher, lawyer, politician, public servant
Known for The First Filipino Academician,[1][2] Great among the Great Filipino Scholars,[3][4][5] A Man of Many Talents[6][7][8]

Epifanio de los Santos y Cristóbal, sometimes known as Don Pañong or Don Panyong (April 7, 1871—April 18, 1928) was a noted Filipino historian,[9][10] literary critic,[11][12] art critic,[11] jurist,[13] prosecutor, antiquarian,[9][11] archivist,[14] scholar,[11][13] painter,[9][12] poet,[12][15] musician,[9][12] musicologist,[16][17][18] philosopher,[9] philologist,[9][11] bibliographer,[9] translator,[19] journalist,[12] editor,[11] publisher,[11][12][20] paleographer,[9] ethnographer, biographer,[12] researcher,[12] civil servant, patriot and hero. He was appointed Director of the Philippine Library and Museum by Governor General Leonard Wood in 1925.

Early life and marriage[edit]

Epifanio de los Santos was born in 1871 in Malabon, Manila (now an independent city) to Escolastico de los Santos of Nueva Ecija and musician Antonina Cristóbal of Malabon. He studied at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila where he obtained a summa cum laude' of Bachelor of Arts degree. He devoted some time for painting but music became part of his daily life and was even awarded a professorship in music.[11] He finished his law studies in University of Santo Tomas and topped the bar exams in 1898.[21] Rafael Palma (1930) noticed that during his college years his collecting instinct was early manifested when he curiously dedicated himself gathering plants and flowers in the Nueva Ecija wherein he also sought the company and even communed with the rural communities.[22] According to Agoncillo, "nobody suspected that he would someday become a literary man". As a young law student, his fascination in the study of Spanish literature was through readings of Juan Valera's novel entitled "Pepita Jimenez" and most of all his available works.[23] Eventually, he formed a delightful and lasting friendship with this author which he met in Spain.[20][22] His home in Intramuros became the meeting place of literary cliques composed of Cecilio Apóstol (Catulo), Fernando María Guerrero (Fulvio Gil), José Palma, Rafael Palma, Jaime C. de Veyra, Macario Pineda, Mariano V. del Rosario, Salvador V. del Rosario, Ysidro Paredes, Macario Adriatico, Jose Clemente Zulueta and Jose G. Abreu.[23] He made a beautiful oil portrait of Rosa Sevilla and composed a melody dedicated for her.[12]

Epifanio's first wife was Doña Ursula Paez of Malabon; his second was Margarita Torralba of Malolos. Jose, his son to his first wife, became a historian, biographer, and collector. His brother, Escolastico, became a pianist for silent films and has made artistic contributions as a poet and a realist story teller in Philippine magazines and newspapers. Socrates, his son from second wife, became a leading Pentagon aeronautics engineer in his time.

He got two lines of descendants with four children on his first wife Ursula Paez namely Jose, Rosario, Escolastico and Antonio and eight children on his second wife Margarita Torralba namely Leticia, Fernando, Socrates, Federico, Hipatia Patria, Espacia Lydia, Glicera Ruth & Margarita.

Literary and Scholarly works[edit]

Epifanio was considered one of the best Filipino writers in Spanish of his time and regarded as a literary genius.[11][24] When he was young, he was the first Filipino to become a member of the Spanish Royal Academy of Language, Spanish Royal Academy of Literature and Spanish Royal Academy of History in Madrid.[20][23] It was the admiration of his writings that Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo asked the Real Academia Española to open its door to the benevolent young native scholar.

Epifanio was a young associate editor of the revolutionary paper "La Independencia"(1898), writing in prose under the pen name G. Solon and also a member of the Malolos Congress. He also co-founded other newspapers like La Libertad, El Renaciemento, La Democracia, La Patria and Malaysia. He also made valuable publications namely; Algo de Prosa (1909), Literatura Tagala (1911), El Teatro Tagala (1911) Nuestra Literatura (1913), El Proceso del Dr. José Rizal (1914), Folklore Musical de Filipinas (1920). He also authored Filipinos y filipinistas (Filipinos and Filipinists), Filipinas para los Filipinos, Cuentos y paisajes Filipinos (Philippine Stories and Scenes) and Criminality in the Philippines (1903–1908).

He was a member of "Samahan ng mga Mananagalog" which was initiated by Felipe Calderon in 1904, and it includes active members with the likes of Lope K. Santos, Rosa Sevilla, Hermenigildo Cruz, Jaime C. de Veyra and Patricio Mariano.[25] He was a polyglot, being fluent in Spanish, English, French, German, Ita, Tingian, and Ibalao. He notably translated Florante and Laura classically into sonorous Castilian.[12] As one of the brilliant writers in the Golden Age of Fil-Hispanic literature who had published numerous titles and books, he was an honorary member of the Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española.[26]

As a versatile researcher, he also contributed to early Philippine studies on anthropology, ethnology, archaeology, linguistics and demographics.[27][28]

Collections[edit]

Epifanio de los Santos traveled to many places in Europe, Asia, and Americas searching for rare Philippine documents in museums, archives, and libraries. He collected almost 200 paintings and sculpted pieces done by Juan Luna, Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo, Fabián de la Rosa, Arellano, Pablo Amorsolo and Fernando Amorsolo, Nepomuceno, and Guillermo Tolentino, musical literatures, opera records, valuable printed materials, documents and manuscripts on the revolution and historical pictures. According to Zaide, his famous Filipiniana collection was rated by foreign scholars as the best in the world. In Europe, he was recognized as the philologist and writer of biographical matters about the Philippines.

According to Zaide, there are documents and printed matter in his collection that cannot be found elsewhere, not even in the Filipiniana Division of The National Library nor in any library the world over, the Library of Congress of the United States included. The best years of his life were spent in looking for them only to find them after an almost "wild goose chase" of a lifetime. His Rizaliana collections were greatly acknowledged by W. E. Retana, James A. Le-Roy, and Austin Craig.

In all, there are 115 printed matter and 213 documents in the collection dealing with Philippine revolution

After de los Santos's death, the Philippine legislature, by virtue of the Philippine Clarin Act, negotiated with the widow and heirs of the great collector for the purchase of the collection and library. The Philippine government bought the priceless collections for P 19,250.00.[29]

Public Service[edit]

De los Santos as a young man.

He was appointed district attorney of San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. He was later elected as governor of Nueva Ecija in 1902 and 1904.[9] His election victory made him the first democratically elected provincial governor and head of the Federal Party in Nueva Ecija. Being a member of the Philippine Commission, he was immediately considered as one of those Filipino intellectuals to represent the Saint Louis World's Fair in 1904. After his term as the governor, he was appointed provincial fiscal of Bulacan and Bataan provinces. He wrote a treatise on electoral fraud "Electoral Fraud and its Remedies" (Fraudes Electorales y Sus Remedios) in 1907 for the Philippine Assembly. On the side, he devoted his spare time to researches in Philippine history and literature. Portions of his collections where destroyed when fires hit his house in San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. According Agoncillo and Palma, his interest lies not in politics. In 1918, he was appointed by Gov. Gen. Francis Burton Harrison as Assistant Technical Director of the Philippine Census.[9]

The last and most significant position De los Santos held was Director of the Philippine Library and Museum, to which was appointed by Gov. Gen. Leonard Wood in 1925. He was also elected as third President of the Philippine Library Association ( now Philippine Librarians Association, Inc.) becoming the first Filipino of native parentage to assume such position professionally for Philippine library science.[9]

Death and legacy[edit]

Epifanio de los Santos y Cristóbal bust, memorial, Caalibangbangan Park, Cabanatuan City.

He died in office on April 18, 1928. The Philippine government paid him a tribute to a stately funeral. Local and foreign scholars lamented to a loss to what has been described by them as "Great among the Great Filipino Scholars."

Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (commonly known as EDSA), the main road through Metro Manila, was named after him.[10] Several schools, streets, a college, a hospital, a printing press and an auditorium in National Library of the Philippines was also named in his honor.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bacallan, Joyce. 1988. Hero of the month- Epifanio delos Santos- a great Filipino academician. The youngster. p. 7.
  2. ^ Epifanio de los Santos (undated)Printed by National Bookstore. Manila, Philippines 260061
  3. ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. 1965.Epifanio de los Santos: Great among the great Filipino scholars. In Great Filipinos in history. 88: 575-581.
  4. ^ Epifanio de los Santos (Great among the great Filipino scholars). 1982. Printed by Merriam School & Office. Supplies Corporation, Manila.
  5. ^ Epifanio de los Santos (Pinakadakilang Iskolar Na Pilipino). 1988. Karapatang-ari ng Merriam & Websters.
  6. ^ Philippine National Heroes from Philippine Centennial 1898-1998 Philippine National Heroes. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  7. ^ The New Philippine Almanac- The Philippine National Heroes. Encleare Foundation. 2007. p.439. ISBN 978-971-0328-22-2
  8. ^ Filipinas Heritage Library - Himig (Filipino Music Trivia) Himig | Features accessed Dec. 14, 2010
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Afan, Carolina L. Epifanio de los Santos y Cristobal. Filipiniana Division. National Library. Government Property. ISBN does not apply.
  10. ^ a b Philippines Laws, Statutes and Codes Virtual Law Library: Epifanio de los Santos Avenue accessed Dec. 15, 2010
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cayco,Libardo D. Epifanio de los Santos Cristobal. Manila. National Heroes Day. Filipiniana Division. National Library. Government Property. Archived from the original.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bernardo, Fernando A. 2000. Silent storms: inspiring lives of 101 great Filipinos. Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-971-27-0929-6
  13. ^ a b Foremost scholar of his time Virtual Law Library: Epifanio de los Santos Avenue accessed Dec. 15, 2010
  14. ^ Reyes, Ed Aurelio C.August 1994. Marcelo H. Del Pilar: Journalist Statesman http://filipinos4life.faithweb.com/Plaridel.htm accessed Dec.15, 2010.
  15. ^ Strangers to Us All - The World's Lawyer Poets at www.myweb.wvnet.edu accessed Dec. 15, 2010
  16. ^ Filipinas Heritage Library- Filipino Music Trivia http://www.himig.com.ph/features/20-filipino-music-trivia accessed Dec. 15, 2010
  17. ^ Afan, Carolina L. Epifanio de los Santos y Cristobal (In listed works). Filipiniana Division. National Library. Government Property. p. 36. (ISBN does not apply)
  18. ^ Lumbera, Bienvenido L. 2001.Tagalog Poetry, 1570-1898- Tradition and Influences in its Development. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 251.ISBN 978-971-550-374-7
  19. ^ Señor EDSA http://filipinoscribbles.wordpress.com/2010/04/07/senor-edsa/ accessed Dec. 16, 2010
  20. ^ a b c The Manila Tribune. April 19, 1928.
  21. ^ Dungo, Dolores T. Epifanio de los Santos. Epifanio de los Santos College, Malabon, Rizal.
  22. ^ a b Palma, Rafael. 1930. Epifanio de los Santos Cristobal.(English translation by Tiburcio Tumaneng from the Spanish Original). Manila. p.4. Archived from the original. Filipiniana Division. National Library-Government Property. ( ISBN does not apply)
  23. ^ a b c Espino, Licsi F. Jr. 1977. A Historian with style: love of learning chiseled the man. Archipelago: International Magazine of the Philippines 1:37-38. ISSN: 0303-8564
  24. ^ Hardtendorp, A. V. H. Don Pañong – genius. Philippine Magazine 26 (Sept.) 210-11, 234-235.
  25. ^ Mojares, Resil B. 2006. Brains of the nation: Pedro Paterno, T.H. Pardo de Tavera, Isabelo de los Reyes and the production of modern knowledge. Ateneo de Manila University Press. Bellarmine Hall, Katipunan Avenue Loyola Heights, Quezon City. p. 477. ISBN 971-550-496-5
  26. ^ Brillantes, Lourdes Castrillo. 2006. 81 Years of Premio Zobel: A Legacy of Philippine Literature in Spanish. Vival Publishing House, Inc. pp. 34 &45. ISBN 978-971-8551-54-7
  27. ^ Afan, Carolina L. Epifanio de los Santos y Cristobal (In listed works). Filipiniana Division. National Library. Government Property. p. 37. (ISBN does not apply)
  28. ^ The Philippine journal of science- Anthropology. [Vol. 77, no. 1]. As coworkers in Archaeology. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library. 2005. p. 223
  29. ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. 1930. Epifanio de los Santos, his collection and library. The Tribune Magazine. pp. 4–5

Bibliography[edit]

  • CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art. Vol IX. Philippine Literature. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines, 1994
  • Agoncillo, Teodoro A. 2002 ed. The revolt of the masses- the story of Bonifacio and the Katipunan. University of the Philippines Press. E. de los Santos St., UP Campus, Diliman, Quezon City.
  • Epifanio de los Santos (Great among the great Filipino scholars). 1982. Printed by Merriam School & Office. Supplies Corporation, Manila.
  • The Delos Santos family descendants memorabilia, historical pictures and clippings.
  • Philippine Free Press. Manila. April 28, 1928.
  • The Manila Tribune. April 19, 1928
  • National Historical Institute (NHI). 1990. Filipinos in history. Vol. II. Manila.
  • Bacallan, Joyce. 1988. Hero of the month- Epifanio delos Santos- a great Filipino academician. The youngster. p. 7.
  • Bernardo, Fernando A. 2000. Silent storms: inspiring lives of 101 great Filipinos. Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-971-27-0929-6
  • Bantug, Jose P. Epifanio de los Santos Cristobal. pp. 215–223.
  • Baylon, Gloria J. EDSA: Country's Avenue of History. The Philippine Post Nation: Leading to the Next Millennium. Feb. 23, 1998.
  • Buencamino, Felipe; De los Santos, Epifanio. Census of the Philippine Islands: taken under the direction of Philippine legislature in the year 1918. A Government Publication. Manila: Bureau Printing. (1921?)
  • Carson, Taylor; De los Santos, Epifanio. 1927. History of the Philippine Press. Manila. 61 pp.
  • Cayco, Librado D. ( 1934) Epifanio de los Santos Cristobal. Manila. National Heroes Day. University of the Philippines.
  • Churchill, Bernadette R. Epifanio de los Santos, pioneer historian. In History & Culture, Language & Literature: Selected Essays of Teodoro A. Agoncillo. pp. 239–245.
  • Cullinane, Michael. 2003. Illustrado politics: Filipino elite responses to American rule, 1989-1908. Ateneo de Manila University.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1909. Algo de prosa. Madrid Fortanet. 70 pp.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1909. Cinco notas al Capitulo octavo de los "Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas" del Dr. Antonio de Morga (en su nueva edición de W.E. Retana). Madrid Fortanet. 24 pp.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1909. Literatura tagala : Conferencia leída en el Liceo de Manila ante el "Samahan ng mananagálog". Madrid Fortanet.25 pp.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1911. Informe acerca de una obra sobre los orígenes de la imprenta filipina. Madrid Imprenta de Fortanet. 52 pp.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1913. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera. Cultura Filipina 4 (1): 1-49.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1913. Ignacio Villamor: El funcionario y el hombre. Cultura Filipina 4 (3): 351-359.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1915. Ignacio Villamor: El funcionario y el hombre. Cultura Filipina 5 (4): 275-294.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1916. Rafael del Pan: The Philippine Review 1 (May): 41-44.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio.1957.Marcelo H. del Pilar ; Andres Bonifacio ; Emilio Jacinto. Kapisanang Pangkasaysayan ng Pilipinas. English and Tagalog. Translated from Spanish.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1973. The revolutionists: Aguinaldo, Bonifacio, Jacinto. Translated and edited by Teodoro A. Agoncillo. Manila: National Historical Commission.
  • De los Santos, Epifanio. 1909. Epifanía Wenceslao E. Retana, ensayo crítico acerca de este ilustre filipinista. Establecimiento Tipográfico de Fortanet, Madrid.
  • Dungo, Dolores T. Epifanio de los Santos. Epifanio de los Santos College, Malabon, Rizal.
  • Espino, Licsi F. Jr. 1977. A Historian with style: love of learning chiseled the man. Archipelago: International Magazine of the Philippines 1:37-38. ISSN: 0303-8564
  • Fermin, Jose D. 2004. 1904 World's Fair: the Filipino experience. E. de los Santos St., UP Campus, Diliman Quezon City. p. 73. ISBN 978-971-542-439-4
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  • Hardtendorp, A. V. H. Don Pañong – genius. Philippine Magazine 26 (Sept.) 210-11, 234-235.
  • Hernandez, Vicente S. 1996. History of books and libraries in the Philippines 1521-1900: A study of the sources and chronology of events pertaining to Philippine library history from the sixteenth to the end of the nineteenth century. National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Manila.
  • Mella, Cesar. 1974. Directory of Filipino Writers: Past and Present. Manila. CTM enterprises.
  • Mojares, Resil B. 2006. Brains of the nation: Pedro Paterno, T.H. Pardo de Tavera, Isabelo de los Reyes and the production of modern knowledge. Ateneo de Manila University Press. Bellarmine Hall, Katipunan Avenue Loyola Heights, Quezon City. p. 477. ISBN 971-550-496-5
  • Nieva, Gregorio, ed. 1880- Manila, P.I.: G. Nieva [etc.]. 2005. The Philippine review (Revista filipina) [Vol. 2, no. 1]. More about Jose Rizal by Epifanio de los Santos. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library. p. 22.
  • Palma, Rafael. 1930. Epifanio de los Santos Cristobal.(English translation by Tiburcio Tumaneng from the Spanish Original). Manila. 14 pp.
  • Qurino, Carlos. 1995. Who's who in the Philippine history. Manila. Tahanan Books.
  • San Juan, E. Jr. Social Consciousness and Revolt in Modern Philippine Poetry. pp. 394–399.
  • Santos, Ramon Pagayon. 2007. Tunugan: four essays on Filipino Music. The University of The Philippines Press. 216 pp.
  • Villareal, Hector K. et al. 1965. Eminent Filipinos. Manila: National Historical Commission.
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. 1930. Epifanio de los Santos, his collection and library. The Tribune Magazine. pp. 4–5
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. 1965. Epifanio de los Santos: Great among the great Filipino scholars. In Great Filipinos in history. 88: 575-581.

External links[edit]