Epiregulin

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Epiregulin
Epl.pdb.png
NMR Structure of Human Epiregulin: by scheme of amino acid.[1] SCOP 103561
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols EREG ; ER
External IDs OMIM602061 MGI107508 HomoloGene1097 GeneCards: EREG Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2069 13874
Ensembl ENSG00000124882 ENSMUSG00000029377
UniProt O14944 Q61521
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001432 NM_007950
RefSeq (protein) NP_001423 NP_031976
Location (UCSC) Chr 4:
75.23 – 75.25 Mb
Chr 5:
91.07 – 91.09 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Epiregulin (EPR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EREG gene.[2][3]

Structure[edit]

Epiregulin consists of 46 amino acid residues. Its secondary structure contains approximately 30 percent of β-sheet in the strand.[1] Some of the residues form loops and turns due to the hydrogen bonding.[1] The percentage of β-sheet in epiregulin depends on the domain and the secondary structures that they occupy. The polymeric molecules of epiregulin has the formula weight of 5280.1 g/mol with a polypeptide(L), a polymer type.[1]

Structural motifs in most proteins have typical connections in an all β motif. Meaning that the polypeptide chains do not make a crossover connection or in so far as this type of connection has not been observed. Epiregulin is one of the proteins that occupies a typical connection in all β motif. Furthermore, as the structure of epiregulin forms a chain in an all β motif, it also forms β hairpin structural motif. A β hairpin is when the two adjacent anti-parallel β strands connected by a β-turn.

Function[edit]

Epiregulin is a member of the epidermal growth factor family. Epiregulin can function as a ligand of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as well as a ligand of most members of the ERBB (v-erb-b2 oncogene homolog) family of tyrosine-kinase receptors.[3] The secondary structure at the C-terminus epiregulin is different from other epidermal growth factor family ligands because of the lack of hydrogen bonds. The structural difference at the C-terminus may provide an explanation for the reduced binding affinity of epiregulin to the ERBB receptors.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e PDB 1K36; Sato K, Nakamura T, Mizuguchi M, Miura K, Tada M, Aizawa T, Gomi T, Miyamoto K, Kawano K (October 2003). "Solution structure of epiregulin and the effect of its C-terminal domain for receptor binding affinity". FEBS Lett. 553 (3): 232–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)01005-6. PMID 14572630. 
  2. ^ Toyoda H, Komurasaki T, Uchida D, Morimoto S (August 1997). "Distribution of mRNA for human epiregulin, a differentially expressed member of the epidermal growth factor family". Biochem. J. 326 (1): 69–75. PMC 1218638. PMID 9337852. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: epiregulin". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Yamamoto T, Akisue T, Marui T, et al. (2004). "Expression of betacellulin, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and epiregulin in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma.". Anticancer Res. 24 (3b): 2007–10. PMID 15274392. 
  • Li S, Takeuchi F, Wang JA, et al. (2008). "Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions involving epiregulin in tuberous sclerosis complex hamartomas.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (9): 3539–44. doi:10.1073/pnas.0712397105. PMID 18292222. 
  • Cho MC, Choi HS, Lee S, et al. (2008). "Epiregulin expression by Ets-1 and ERK signaling pathway in Ki-ras-transformed cells.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 377 (3): 832–7. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.10.053. PMID 18948081. 
  • Lindvall C, Hou M, Komurasaki T, et al. (2003). "Molecular characterization of human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized human fibroblasts by gene expression profiling: activation of the epiregulin gene.". Cancer Res. 63 (8): 1743–7. PMID 12702554. 
  • Morita S, Shirakata Y, Shiraishi A, et al. (2007). "Human corneal epithelial cell proliferation by epiregulin and its cross-induction by other EGF family members.". Mol. Vis. 13: 2119–28. PMID 18079685. 
  • Freimann S, Ben-Ami I, Dantes A, et al. (2004). "EGF-like factor epiregulin and amphiregulin expression is regulated by gonadotropins/cAMP in human ovarian follicular cells.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 324 (2): 829–34. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.09.129. PMID 15474502. 
  • Ben-Ami I, Armon L, Freimann S, et al. (2009). "EGF-like growth factors as LH mediators in the human corpus luteum.". Hum. Reprod. 24 (1): 176–84. doi:10.1093/humrep/den359. PMID 18835871. 
  • Shigeishi H, Higashikawa K, Hiraoka M, et al. (2008). "Expression of epiregulin, a novel epidermal growth factor ligand associated with prognosis in human oral squamous cell carcinomas.". Oncol. Rep. 19 (6): 1557–64. PMID 18497965. 
  • Taylor DS, Cheng X, Pawlowski JE, et al. (1999). "Epiregulin is a potent vascular smooth muscle cell-derived mitogen induced by angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and thrombin.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (4): 1633–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.4.1633. PMID 9990076. 
  • Zhang J, Iwanaga K, Choi KC, et al. (2008). "Intratumoral epiregulin is a marker of advanced disease in non-small cell lung cancer patients and confers invasive properties on EGFR-mutant cells.". Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 1 (3): 201–7. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0014. PMID 19138957. 
  • Draper BK, Komurasaki T, Davidson MK, Nanney LB (2003). "Epiregulin is more potent than EGF or TGFalpha in promoting in vitro wound closure due to enhanced ERK/MAPK activation.". J. Cell. Biochem. 89 (6): 1126–37. doi:10.1002/jcb.10584. PMID 12898511. 
  • Révillion F, Lhotellier V, Hornez L, Bonneterre J, Peyrat JP (January 2008). "ErbB/HER ligands in human breast cancer, and relationships with their receptors, the bio-pathological features and prognosis". Ann. Oncol. 19 (1): 73–80. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdm431. PMID 17962208. 
  • Ben-Ami I, Freimann S, Armon L, et al. (2006). "PGE2 up-regulates EGF-like growth factor biosynthesis in human granulosa cells: new insights into the coordination between PGE2 and LH in ovulation.". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 12 (10): 593–9. doi:10.1093/molehr/gal068. PMID 16888076. 
  • Takahashi M, Hayashi K, Yoshida K, et al. (2003). "Epiregulin as a major autocrine/paracrine factor released from ERK- and p38MAPK-activated vascular smooth muscle cells.". Circulation 108 (20): 2524–9. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000096482.02567.8C. PMID 14581411. 
  • Lasky-Su J, Neale BM, Franke B, et al. (2008). "Genome-wide association scan of quantitative traits for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identifies novel associations and confirms candidate gene associations.". Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 147B (8): 1345–54. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30867. PMID 18821565. 
  • Gupta GP, Nguyen DX, Chiang AC, et al. (2007). "Mediators of vascular remodelling co-opted for sequential steps in lung metastasis.". Nature 446 (7137): 765–70. doi:10.1038/nature05760. PMID 17429393. 
  • Shirakata Y, Komurasaki T, Toyoda H, et al. (2000). "Epiregulin, a novel member of the epidermal growth factor family, is an autocrine growth factor in normal human keratinocytes.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (8): 5748–53. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.8.5748. PMID 10681561. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.