Epsom Oaks

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Oaks Stakes
Group 1 race
Eleanor horse.jpg
1801 Oaks winner Eleanor
Location Epsom Downs
Epsom, England
Inaugurated 1779
Race type Flat / Thoroughbred
Sponsor Investec
Website Epsom Downs
Race information
Distance 1m 4f 10y (2,423 m)
Surface Turf
Track Left-handed
Qualification Three-year-old fillies
Weight 9 st 0 lb
Purse £525,000 (2014)
1st: £297,728
Epsom Oaks
2014
Royal blue, white epaulets, striped cap Royal Blue, White Epaulets, Black cap Dark blue and light green diamonds
Taghrooda Tarfasha Volume

The Oaks Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old thoroughbred fillies. It is run at Epsom Downs over a distance of 1 mile, 4 furlongs and 10 yards (2,423 metres), and it is scheduled to take place each year in early June.

It is the third of Britain's five Classic races to be held during the season, and the second of two restricted to fillies. It can also serve as the middle leg of the Fillies' Triple Crown, preceded by the 1,000 Guineas and followed by the St Leger, although the feat of winning all three is rarely attempted.

History[edit]

The event is named after The Oaks, an estate located to the east of Epsom which was leased to the 12th Earl of Derby in the 18th century. He and his guests devised the race during a party at the estate in 1778. It was first run (as the Oakes Stakes[1]) in 1779, one year before the introduction of the Derby Stakes. The inaugural winner, Bridget, was owned by Lord Derby himself.

The Oaks subsequently became one of Britain's leading events for three-year-olds. By the mid-1860s, the five leading events for this age group were referred to as "Classics". The concept was later adopted in many other countries.

European variations of the Oaks include the Irish Oaks, the Preis der Diana, the Prix de Diane and the Oaks d'Italia. Other national equivalents include the AJC Oaks, the New Zealand Oaks and the Yushun Himba.

Since 1892, horses have each carried 9 stone in the race. Prior to this, there were several fluctuations, from an original 8 stone 4 pounds, down to 8 stone, then progressively upwards.[1]

During both World wars the race was run at Newmarket under the title the New Oaks Stakes.[1] The 2014 running incorporated the name of Sir Henry Cecil in its title. Cecil, who died in June 2013, trained eight Oaks winners between 1985 and 2007.[2]

Records[edit]

Leading jockey (9 wins):

  • Frank BuckleNike (1797), Bellissima (1798), Bellina (1799), Scotia (1802), Theophania (1803), Meteora (1805), Neva (1817), Corinne (1818), Zinc (1823)

Leading trainer (13 wins):

  • Robert RobsonScotia (1802), Pelisse (1804), Meteora (1805), Briseis (1807), Morel (1808), Maid of Orleans (1809), Music (1813), Minuet (1815), Landscape (1816), Corinne (1818), Pastille (1822), Zinc (1823), Wings (1825)

Leading owner (6 wins):

  • 4th Duke of GraftonMusic (1813), Minuet (1815), Pastille (1822), Zinc (1823), Turquoise (1828), Oxygen (1831)
  • Fastest winning time (at Epsom)Intrepidity (1993), 2m 34.19s
  • Widest winning marginSun Princess (1983), 12 lengths
  • Longest odds winnersVespa (1833) and Jet Ski Lady (1991), 50/1
  • Shortest odds winnerPretty Polly (1904), 8/100
  • Most runners – 26, in 1848
  • Fewest runners – 4, in 1799 and 1904


Winners[edit]

Year Winner Jockey Trainer Owner Time
1779 Bridget Dick Goodisson Saunders 12th Earl of Derby
1780 Tetotum Dick Goodisson Thomas Douglas
1781 Faith Dick Goodisson John Pratt 1st Earl Grosvenor
1782 Ceres Sam Chifney John Pratt 1st Earl Grosvenor
1783 Maid of the Oaks Sam Chifney John Pratt 1st Earl Grosvenor
1784 Stella Charles Hindley Philip Burlton
1785 Trifle J. Bird John Pratt 1st Earl of Clermont
1786 Yellow Filly James Edwards Richard Prince Sir Frank Standish
1787 Annette Dennis Fitzpatrick J. Watson Richard Vernon
1788 Nightshade Dennis Fitzpatrick Frank Neale 3rd Earl of Egremont
1789 Tag Sam Chifney Frank Neale 3rd Earl of Egremont
1790 Hippolyta Sam Chifney Matt Stephenson 5th Duke of Bedford
1791 Portia John Singleton, Jr. Matt Stephenson 5th Duke of Bedford
1792 Volante Charles Hindley John Pratt 1st Earl of Clermont
1793 Caelia John Singleton, Jr. Matt Stephenson 5th Duke of Bedford
1794 Hermione Sam Arnull Saunders 12th Earl of Derby
1795 Platina Dennis Fitzpatrick Frank Neale 3rd Earl of Egremont
1796 Parisot John Arnull Richard Prince Sir Frank Standish
1797 Nike Frank Buckle John Pratt 1st Earl Grosvenor
1798 Bellissima Frank Buckle Richard Prince John Durand
1799 Bellina Frank Buckle John Pratt 1st Earl Grosvenor
1800 Ephemera Dennis Fitzpatrick Frank Neale 3rd Earl of Egremont
1801 Eleanor John Saunders J. Frost Sir Charles Bunbury
1802 Scotia Frank Buckle Robert Robson John Wastell
1803 Theophania Frank Buckle Sam King Sir Thomas Gascoigne
1804 Pelisse Bill Clift Robert Robson 3rd Duke of Grafton
1805 Meteora Frank Buckle Robert Robson 2nd Earl Grosvenor
1806 Bronze William Edwards Dixon Boyce Berkeley Craven
1807 Briseis Sam Chifney, Jr. Robert Robson Thomas Grosvenor
1808 Morel Bill Clift Robert Robson 3rd Duke of Grafton
1809 Maid of Orleans Ben Moss Robert Robson John Leveson-Gower
1810 Oriana Bill Peirse Bill Peirse Sir William Gerard
1811 Sorcery Sam Chifney, Jr. Dixon Boyce 5th Duke of Rutland
1812 Manuella Bill Peirse Bill Peirse W. N. W. Hewett
1813 Music Tom Goodisson Robert Robson 4th Duke of Grafton
1814 Medora Sam Barnard Dixon Boyce 5th Duke of Rutland
1815 Minuet Tom Goodisson Robert Robson 4th Duke of Grafton
1816 Landscape Sam Chifney, Jr. Robert Robson John Leveson-Gower
1817 Neva Frank Buckle Dixon Boyce George Watson
1818 Corinne Frank Buckle Robert Robson John Udney
1819 Shoveler Sam Chifney, Jr. William Chifney Thomas Thornhill
1820 Caroline Harry Edwards Robert Stephenson 3rd Earl of Egremont
1821 Augusta Jem Robinson R. Prince, Jr. 2nd Marquess of Exeter
1822 Pastille Harry Edwards Robert Robson 4th Duke of Grafton
1823 Zinc Frank Buckle Robert Robson 4th Duke of Grafton
1824 Cobweb Jem Robinson James Edwards 5th Earl of Jersey
1825 Wings Sam Chifney, Jr. Robert Robson Thomas Grosvenor
1826 Lilias Tommy Lye John Forth John Forth
1827 Gulnare Frank Boyce John Kent 5th Duke of Richmond
1828 Turquoise John Barham Day Robert Stephenson 4th Duke of Grafton
1829 Green Mantle George Dockeray Charles Marson 2nd Marquess of Exeter
1830 Variation George Edwards Bobby Pettit William Scott Stonehewer
1831 Oxygen John Barham Day Robert Stephenson 4th Duke of Grafton
1832 Galata Patrick Conolly Charles Marson 2nd Marquess of Exeter
1833 Vespa Jem Chapple H. Scott Sir Mark Wood
1834 Pussy John Barham Day W. Day Thomas Cosby
1835 Queen of Trumps Tommy Lye John Blenkhorn Edward Lloyd-Mostyn
1836 Cyprian Bill Scott John Scott John Scott
1837 Miss Letty John Holmes Isaac Blades Thomas Orde-Powlett
1838 Industry Bill Scott John Scott 6th Earl of Chesterfield
1839 Deception John Barham Day W. Treen Fulwar Craven
1840 Crucifix John Barham Day John Barham Day Lord George Bentinck
1841 Ghuznee Bill Scott John Scott 1st Marquess of Westminster
1842 Our Nell Tommy Lye Tom Dawson George Dawson
1843 Poison Frank Butler R. Fisher George Ford
1844 The Princess Frank Butler John Scott George Anson
1845 Refraction Henry Bell John Kent, Jr. 5th Duke of Richmond
1846 Mendicant Sam Day John Day John Gully
1847 Miami Sim Templeman W. Beresford Sir Joseph Hawley
1848 Cymba Sim Templeman John Day Harry Hill
1849 Lady Evelyn Frank Butler Tom Taylor 6th Earl of Chesterfield
1850 Rhedycina Frank Butler William Goodwin George Hobson
1851 Iris Frank Butler John Scott Lord Stanley
1852 Songstress Frank Butler John Scott John Scott
1853 Catherine Hayes Charlie Marlow Mathew Dawson John Don-Wauchope
1854 Mincemeat Jack Charlton William Goodwin William Cookson
1855 Marchioness Sim Templeman John Scott William Rudston-Read
1856 Mincepie Alfred Day John Day Harry Hill
1857 Blink Bonny Jack Charlton William I'Anson William I'Anson
1858 Governess [a] Tom Ashmall Tom Eskrett William Gratwicke
1859 Summerside George Fordham Tom Taylor 1st Baron Londesborough
1860 Butterfly Jim Snowden G. Oates Richard Eastwood
1861 Brown Duchess Luke Snowden Joseph Saxon Joseph Saxon
1862 Feu de Joie Tom Chaloner James Godding Richard Naylor
1863 Queen Bertha Tom Aldcroft John Scott 6th Viscount Falmouth
1864 Fille de l'Air Arthur Edwards Tom Jennings, Sr. Frédéric de Lagrange
1865 Regalia John Norman William Harlock William Graham
1866 Tormentor Jimmy Mann C. Blanton Benjamin Ellam
1867 Hippia John Daley Joseph Hayhoe Mayer A. de Rothschild
1868 Formosa George Fordham Henry Woolcott William Graham
1869 Brigantine Tom Cannon, Sr. William Day Sir Frederick Johnstone
1870 Gamos George Fordham Henry Woolcott William Graham 2:46.50
1871 Hannah Charlie Maidment Joseph Hayhoe Mayer A. de Rothschild 2:51.00
1872 Reine George Fordham Tom Jennings, Sr. Claude-Joachim Lefèvre
1873 Marie Stuart Tom Cannon, Sr. Robert Peck James Merry
1874 Apology John Osborne, Jr. William Osborne John King 2:48.00
1875 Spinaway Fred Archer Mathew Dawson 6th Viscount Falmouth
1876
(dh)
Camelia
Enguerrande
Tom Glover
Hudson
T. Cunnington
C. Wetherall
Frédéric de Lagrange
Auguste Lupin
1877 Placida Harry Jeffery Joseph Marsh John Fiennes 2:54.50
1878 Jannette Fred Archer Mathew Dawson 6th Viscount Falmouth 2:54.00
1879 Wheel of Fortune Fred Archer Mathew Dawson 6th Viscount Falmouth 3:02.00
1880 Jenny Howlet Jim Snowden William I'Anson, Jr. Charles Perkins 2:49.00
1881 Thebais George Fordham Alec Taylor, Sr. William Stirling Crawfurd 2:46.00
1882 Geheimniss Tom Cannon, Sr. John Porter 7th Earl of Stamford
1883 Bonny Jean John Watts Joe Cannon 5th Earl of Rosebery 2:53.00
1884 Busybody Tom Cannon, Sr. Tom Cannon, Sr. George Baird
1885 Lonely Fred Archer William Gilbert, Jr. 5th Earl Cadogan 2:44.00
1886 Miss Jummy John Watts Richard Marsh 12th Duke of Hamilton 2:54.40
1887 Reve d'Or Charles Wood Alec Taylor, Sr. 8th Duke of Beaufort 2:50.40
1888 Seabreeze Jack Robinson James Jewitt 5th Baron Calthorpe 2:42.8
1889 L'Abbesse de Jouarre Jimmy Woodburn Robert Sherwood Lord Randolph Churchill 2:45.00
1890 Memoir John Watts George Dawson 6th Duke of Portland 2:40.80
1891 Mimi Fred Rickaby Mathew Dawson Noel Fenwick 2:54.60
1892 La Fleche George Barrett John Porter Baron Maurice de Hirsch 2:43.20
1893 Mrs Butterwick John Watts George Dawson 6th Duke of Portland 2:44.00
1894 Amiable Walter Bradford George Dawson 6th Duke of Portland 2:50.00
1895 La Sagesse Sam Loates Martin Gurry Sir James Miller 2:48.80
1896 Canterbury Pilgrim Fred Rickaby George Lambton 16th Earl of Derby 2:45.60
1897 Limasol Walter Bradford Tom Jennings, Jr. 2nd Baron Hindlip 2:45.00
1898 Airs and Graces Walter Bradford Fred Day W. T. Jones 2:45.20
1899 Musa Otto Madden Harry Enoch Douglas Baird 2:44.00
1900 La Roche Morny Cannon John Porter 6th Duke of Portland 2:48.20
1901 Cap and Bells II Milton Henry Sam Darling Foxhall Keene 2:44.40
1902 Sceptre Herbert Randall Bob Sievier Bob Sievier 2:46.60
1903 Our Lassie Morny Cannon Charles Morton Jack Barnato Joel 2:44.60
1904 Pretty Polly Willie Lane Peter Gilpin Eustace Loder 2:46.20
1905 Cherry Lass Herbert Jones Jack Robinson William Hall Walker 2:38.00
1906 Keystone II Danny Maher George Lambton 16th Earl of Derby 2:38.60
1907 Glass Doll Herbert Randall Charles Morton Jack Barnato Joel 2:42.00
1908 Signorinetta Billy Bullock Odoardo Ginistrelli Odoardo Ginistrelli 2:42.40
1909 Perola Frank Wootton Saunders Davies William Cooper 2:39.80
1910 Rosedrop Charlie Trigg Alec Taylor, Jr. Sir William Bass 2:38.20
1911 Cherimoya Fred Winter, Sr. Charlie Marsh William Broderick Cloete 2:41.60
1912 Mirska Joe Childs Tom Jennings, Jr. Jean Prat 2:43.00
1913 Jest Fred Rickaby, Jr. Charles Morton Jack Barnato Joel 2:37.60
1914 Princess Dorrie Bill Huxley Charles Morton Jack Barnato Joel 2:38.20
1915 Snow Marten Walter Griggs Peter Gilpin Ludwig Neumann 2:36.20
1916 Fifinella Joe Childs Dick Dawson Sir Edward Hulton 2:35.00
1917 Sunny Jane Otto Madden Alec Taylor, Jr. Waldorf Astor 2:43.40
1918 My Dear [b] Steve Donoghue Alec Taylor, Jr. Alfred Cox 2:34.80
1919 Bayuda Joe Childs Alec Taylor, Jr. Lady James Douglas 2:37.20
1920 Charlebelle Albert Whalley Sandy Braime Alan Cunliffe 2:38.20
1921 Love in Idleness Joe Childs Alec Taylor, Jr. Joseph Watson 2:38.40
1922 Pogrom Ted Gardner Alec Taylor, Jr. 2nd Viscount Astor 2:36.20
1923 Brownhylda Vic Smyth Dick Dawson Vicomte de Fontarce 2:37.00
1924 Straitlace Frank O'Neill Dawson Waugh Sir Edward Hulton 2:47.00
1925 Saucy Sue Frank Bullock Alec Taylor, Jr. 2nd Viscount Astor 2:43.60
1926 Short Story Bobby Jones Alec Taylor, Jr. 2nd Viscount Astor 2:43.60
1927 Beam Tommy Weston Frank Butters 3rd Earl of Durham 2:34.60
1928 Toboggan Tommy Weston Frank Butters 17th Earl of Derby 2:37.40
1929 Pennycomequick Henri Jelliss Joseph Lawson 2nd Viscount Astor 2:35.80
1930 Rose of England Gordon Richards Thomas Hogg 1st Baron Glanely 2:39.00
1931 Brulette Charlie Elliott Frank Carter Charles Birkin 2:39.20
1932 Udaipur Michael Beary Frank Butters HH Aga Khan III 2:43.20
1933 Chatelaine Sam Wragg Fred Templeman Ernest Thornton-Smith 2:36.80
1934 Light Brocade Brownie Carslake Frank Butters 5th Earl of Durham 2:35.20
1935 Quashed Henri Jelliss Colledge Leader Lord Stanley 2:41.40
1936 Lovely Rosa Tommy Weston Harry Cottrill Sir Abe Bailey 2:36.00
1937 Exhibitionnist Steve Donoghue Joseph Lawson Sir Victor Sassoon 2:36.80
1938 Rockfel Harry Wragg Ossie Bell Sir Hugo Cunliffe-Owen 2:37.00
1939 Galatea Bobby Jones Joseph Lawson Robert Sterling Clark 2:40.60
1940 Godiva Doug Marks William Rose Jarvis Esmond Harmsworth 2:29.40
1941 Commotion Harry Wragg Fred Darling Arthur Dewar 2:35.60
1942 Sun Chariot Gordon Richards Fred Darling King George VI 2:33.20
1943 Why Hurry Charlie Elliott Noel Cannon Jimmy Rank 2:32.60
1944 Hycilla Georges Bridgland Cecil Boyd-Rochfort William Woodward, Sr. 2:30.40
1945 Sun Stream Harry Wragg Walter Earl 17th Earl of Derby 2:30.00
1946 Steady Aim Harry Wragg Frank Butters Sir Alfred Butt 2:41.00
1947 Imprudence Rae Johnstone Joseph Lieux Mrs Pierre Corbière 2:40.00
1948 Masaka Billy Nevett Frank Butters HH Aga Khan III 2:40.60
1949 Musidora Edgar Britt Charles Elsey Norman Donaldson 2:40.00
1950 Asmena Rae Johnstone Charles Semblat Marcel Boussac 2:42.40
1951 Neasham Belle Stan Clayton Geoffrey Brooke Lionel Holliday 2:41.20
1952 Frieze Edgar Britt Charles Elsey Alexander Keith 2:35.36
1953 Ambiguity Joe Mercer Jack Colling 3rd Viscount Astor 2:36.48
1954 Sun Cap Rae Johnstone Richard Carver Mrs Robert Forget 2:39.12
1955 Meld Harry Carr Cecil Boyd-Rochfort Lady Zia Wernher 2:47.48
1956 Sicarelle Freddie Palmer François Mathet Suzy Volterra 2:42.00
1957 Carrozza Lester Piggott Noel Murless Queen Elizabeth II 2:37.24
1958 Bella Paola Max Garcia François Mathet François Dupré 2:40.48
1959 Petite Etoile Lester Piggott Noel Murless Prince Aly Khan 2:35.48
1960 Never Too Late Roger Poincelet Etienne Pollet Mrs Howell Jackson 2:39.12
1961 Sweet Solera Bill Rickaby Reginald Day Mrs Magnus Castello 2:39.24
1962 Monade Yves Saint-Martin Joseph Lieux George Goulandris 2:38.12
1963 Noblesse Garnie Bougoure Paddy Prendergast Evelyn Olin 2:39.36
1964 Homeward Bound Greville Starkey John Oxley Sir Foster Robinson 2:49.36
1965 Long Look Jack Purtell Vincent O'Brien James Cox Brady, Jr. 2:39.56
1966 Valoris Lester Piggott Vincent O'Brien Charles Clore 2:39.35
1967 Pia Edward Hide Bill Elsey Countess Batthyany 2:38.34
1968 La Lagune Gérard Thiboeuf François Boutin Henry Berlin 2:41.66
1969 Sleeping Partner John Gorton Doug Smith 6th Earl of Rosebery 2:39.94
1970 Lupe Sandy Barclay Noel Murless Gladys Joel 2:41.46
1971 Altesse Royale Geoff Lewis Noel Murless Roger Hue-Williams 2:36.95
1972 Ginevra Tony Murray Ryan Price Charles St George 2:39.35
1973 Mysterious Geoff Lewis Noel Murless George Pope, Jr. 2:36.31
1974 Polygamy Pat Eddery Peter Walwyn Louis Freedman 2:39.39
1975 Juliette Marny Lester Piggott Jeremy Tree James Ian Morrison 2:39.10
1976 Pawneese Yves Saint-Martin Angel Penna, Sr. Daniel Wildenstein 2:35.25
1977 Dunfermline Willie Carson Dick Hern Queen Elizabeth II 2:36.53
1978 Fair Salinia Greville Starkey Michael Stoute Sven Hanson 2:36.82
1979 Scintillate Pat Eddery Jeremy Tree James Morrison 2:43.74
1980 Bireme Willie Carson Dick Hern Dick Hollingsworth 2:34.33
1981 Blue Wind Lester Piggott Dermot Weld Diana Firestone 2:40.93
1982 Time Charter Billy Newnes Henry Candy Robert Barnett 2:34.21
1983 Sun Princess Willie Carson Dick Hern Sir Michael Sobell 2:40.98
1984 Circus Plume Lester Piggott John Dunlop Sir Robin McAlpine 2:38.97
1985 Oh So Sharp Steve Cauthen Henry Cecil Sheikh Mohammed 2:41.37
1986 Midway Lady Ray Cochrane Ben Hanbury Harry Ranier 2:35.60
1987 Unite Walter Swinburn Michael Stoute Sheikh Mohammed 2:38.17
1988 Diminuendo Steve Cauthen Henry Cecil Sheikh Mohammed 2:35.02
1989 Snow Bride [c] Steve Cauthen Henry Cecil Saeed bin M. Al Maktoum 2:34.22
1990 Salsabil Willie Carson John Dunlop Hamdan Al Maktoum 2:38.70
1991 Jet Ski Lady Christy Roche Jim Bolger Maktoum Al Maktoum 2:37.30
1992 User Friendly George Duffield Clive Brittain Bill Gredley 2:39.77
1993 Intrepidity Michael Roberts André Fabre Sheikh Mohammed 2:34.19
1994 Balanchine Frankie Dettori Hilal Ibrahim Maktoum / Godolphin 2:40.37
1995 Moonshell Frankie Dettori Saeed bin Suroor Maktoum / Godolphin 2:35.44
1996 Lady Carla Pat Eddery Henry Cecil Wafic Saïd 2:35.55
1997 Reams of Verse Kieren Fallon Henry Cecil Khalid Abdullah 2:35.59
1998 Shahtoush Michael Kinane Aidan O'Brien Nagle / Magnier 2:38.23
1999 Ramruma Kieren Fallon Henry Cecil Prince Fahd bin Salman 2:38.72
2000 Love Divine Richard Quinn Henry Cecil Lordship Stud 2:43.11
2001 Imagine Michael Kinane Aidan O'Brien Nagle / Magnier 2:36.70
2002 Kazzia Frankie Dettori Saeed bin Suroor Godolphin 2:44.52
2003 Casual Look Martin Dwyer Andrew Balding William S. Farish III 2:38.07
2004 Ouija Board Kieren Fallon Ed Dunlop 19th Earl of Derby 2:35.41
2005 Eswarah Richard Hills Michael Jarvis Hamdan Al Maktoum 2:39.00
2006 Alexandrova Kieren Fallon Aidan O'Brien Magnier / Tabor / Smith 2:37.71
2007 Light Shift Ted Durcan Henry Cecil Niarchos Family 2:40.38
2008 Look Here Seb Sanders Ralph Beckett Julian Richmond-Watson 2:36.89
2009 Sariska Jamie Spencer Michael Bell Lady Bamford 2:35.28
2010 Snow Fairy Ryan Moore Ed Dunlop Anamoine Ltd 2:35.77
2011 Dancing Rain Johnny Murtagh William Haggas Martin and Lee Taylor 2:41.73
2012 Was Seamie Heffernan Aidan O'Brien Smith / Magnier / Tabor / 2:38.68
2013 Talent Richard Hughes Ralph Beckett J Rowsell & M Dixon 2:42.00
2014 Taghrooda Paul Hanagan John Gosden Hamdan Al Maktoum 2:34.89

a The race finished as a dead-heat in 1858, but Governess defeated Gildermire in a run-off.
b Stony Ford finished first in 1918, but she was disqualified for causing interference to My Dear.
c Aliysa was first in 1989, but she was later disqualified after testing positive for a banned substance.

   Wartime substitute race at Newmarket.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Waterman, Jack (1999). The Punter's Friend. Harpenden, Herts, UK: Queen Anne Press. ISBN 1852916001. 
  2. ^ "The Oaks: Marvellous heads field of 17 entries for Epsom race". BBC Sport. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 

External links[edit]