In Europe, the measurement configuration and conditions are defined by a standard: IEC 60404-2:1996 Magnetic materials - Part 2: Methods of measurement of the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet and strip by means of an Epstein frame. BS EN 60404-2:1998+A1 contains an updated version of IEC 60404-2.
An Epstein frame comprises a primary and a secondary winding. The sample under test should be prepared as a set of a number of strips (always a multiple of four) cut from electrical steel sheet or ribbon. Each layer of the sample is double-lapped in corners and weighted down with a force of 1 N[clarification needed] (see photo).
Power loss, Pc, is calculated as:
is the number of turns of primary winding
is the number of turns of secondary winding
is the reading of the wattmeter in watts
is the total resistance of the instruments in the secondary circuit in ohms and
is the average secondary voltage in volts.
Specific power loss, Ps, is calculated as:
is the length of the sample in metres
is the average magnetic path length = 0.94 (constant value)
is the mass of the sample in kilograms
If all conditions are as defined in the standard, the standard deviation of the reproducibility of the values is not greater than 1.5% up to 1.5 T[clarification needed] for non-oriented electrical steel and up to 1.7 T for grain-oriented electrical steel.