|Classification and external resources|
Epulis (plural epulides) is any benign tumor (i.e. lump) situated on the gingival or aveolar mucosa. The word literally means "on the gingiva". There are three types: fibromatous, ossifying and acanthomatous.[medical citation needed] The related term parulis (commonly called a gumboil) refers to a mass of inflamed granulation tissue at the opening of a draining sinus on the alveolus over (or near to) the root of an infected tooth.
Epulis fissuratum 
This is a fibrous hyperplasia of excess connective tissue folds that takes place in reaction to chronic trauma from an ill fitting denture. It usually occurs in the mandibular labial sulcus. Sometimes the term epulis is used synonymously with epulis fissuratum, but this is technically incorrect as several other lesions could be described as epulides.
Pyogenic granuloma 
This type of epulis is neither pyogenic ("pus producing") nor a true granuloma, but it is a vascular lesion. About 75% of all pyogenic granulomas occur on the gingiva, although they may also occur elsewhere in the mouth or other parts of the body (where the term epulis is inappropriate). This common oral lesion is thought to be a reaction to irritation of the tissues and poor oral hygiene. It is more common in younger people and in females, and appears as a red-purple swelling and bleeds easily.
Pregnancy epulis 
Also termed a "pregnancy tumor" or "granuloma gravidarum", this lesion is identical to a pyogenic granuloma in all respects apart from the fact that it occurs exclusively in pregnant females. There is usually pregnancy gingivitis also.
Fibrous epulis 
This epulis most commonly occurs on the gingiva near the front of the mouth between two teeth. It may be sessile or pedunculated and is composed of fibrosed granulation tissue. Fibrous epulides are firm and rubbery, and pale pink in color. Over time, bone may form within the lesion at which point the term peripheral ossifying fibroma may be used (in some parts of the world).
Ossifying fibroid epulis 
This is a long standing fibrous epulis in which bone has begun to form. Not to be confused with ossifying fibroma.
Giant cell epulis 
This epulis contains giant cells.
Epulis granulomatosa 
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Congenital epulis 
This epulis is non-acquired, which is in contrast to most other epulides which tend to be reactive lesions to tissue irritation.
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- Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CA, Bouquot JE (2002). Oral & maxillofacial pathology (2. ed. ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. pp. 440–442,447–448. ISBN 0721690033.
- Cawson's essentials of oral pathology and oral medicine. (7. ed. ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. 2002. pp. 275–278. ISBN 0443071063.