Equipotential surface

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Equipotential surfaces are surfaces of constant scalar potential. They are used to visualize an (n)-dimensional scalar potential function in (n-1) dimensional space. The gradient of the potential, denoting the direction of greatest increase, is perpendicular to the surface.

In electrostatics, the work done to move a charge from any point on the equipotential surface to any other point on the equipotential surface is zero since they are at the same potential. Furthermore, equipotential surfaces are always perpendicular to the net electric field lines passing through it.

The term is used in electrostatics, fluid mechanics, and geodesy.

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