Equivalent noise resistance

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In telecommunication, an equivalent noise resistance is a quantitative representation in resistance units of the spectral density of a noise-voltage generator, given by $R_n = \frac {\pi W_n}{k T_0}$ where $W_n$ is the spectral density, $k$ is the Boltzmann's constant, $T_0$ is the standard noise temperature (290 K), so $kT_0 = 4.00 \times 10^{-21}\,[Ws]$.

Note: The equivalent noise resistance in terms of the mean-square noise-generator voltage, e2, within a frequency increment, Δ f, is given by

$R_n = \frac{e^2}{4 k T_0\,\Delta f}.$

This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C".