|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2010)|
the 1993 Longman edition
|Written by||Peter Shaffer|
|Place premiered||Royal National Theatre|
|Subject||17-year old boy blinds six horses with spike, case becomes a catalyst for his psychiatrist's own doubts|
|Setting||The Present; Rokeby Psychiatric Hospital, Southern England|
Shaffer was inspired to write Equus when he heard of a crime involving a 17-year-old who blinded six horses in a small town near Suffolk. He set out to construct a fictional account of what might have caused the incident, without knowing any of the details of the crime. The play's action is something of a detective story, involving the attempts of the child psychiatrist, Dr. Martin Dysart, to understand the cause of the boy's actions while wrestling with his own sense of purpose. The stage show ran in London between 1973 and 1975: later came the Broadway productions that starred Anthony Hopkins as Dysart (later played by Richard Burton and Anthony Perkins), and from the London production, Peter Firth as Alan. The Broadway production ran for 1,209 performances.
Numerous other issues inform the narrative. Most important are religious and ritual sacrifice themes, and the manner in which character Alan Strang constructs a personal theology involving the horses and the supreme godhead, "Equus". Alan sees the horses as representative of God and confuses his adoration of his "God" with sexual attraction. Also important is Shaffer's examination of the conflict between personal values and satisfaction and societal mores, expectations and institutions. In reference to the play's classical structure, themes and characterisation, Shaffer has discussed the conflict between Apollonian and Dionysian values and systems in human life.
Martin Dysart is a psychiatrist in a psychiatric hospital. He begins with a monologue in which he outlines Alan Strang's case. He also divulges his feeling that his occupation is not all that he wishes it to be and his feelings of dissatisfaction and disappointment about his barren life. Dysart finds that there is a never-ending supply of troubled young people for him to "adjust" back into "normal" living; but he doubts the value of treating these youths, since they will simply return to a dull, normal life that lacks any commitment and "worship" (a recurring theme). He comments that Alan Strang's crime was extreme but adds that just such extremity is needed to break free from the chains of existence.
A court magistrate, Hesther Salomon, visits Dysart, believing that he has the skills to help Alan come to terms with his violent acts.
Dysart has a great deal of difficulty making any kind of headway with Alan, who at first responds to questioning by singing advertising jingles. Slowly, however, Dysart makes contact with Alan by playing a game where each of them asks a question, which must be answered honestly. He learns that, from an early age, Alan has been receiving conflicting viewpoints on religion from his parents. Alan's mother, Dora Strang, is a devout Christian who has read to him daily from the Bible. This practice has antagonised Alan's atheist father, Frank Strang, who, concerned that Alan has taken far too much interest in the more violent aspects of the Bible, destroyed a violent picture of the Crucifixion that Alan had hung at the foot of his bed. Alan replaced the picture with one of a horse, with large, staring eyes.
Moreover, during his youth, Alan had established his attraction to horses by way of his mother's biblical tales, a horse story that she had read to him, western movies, and his grandfather's interest in horses and riding.
Dysart reveals a dream he has had, in a Grecian/Homeric setting, in which he is a public official presiding over a mass ritual sacrifice. Dysart slices open the viscera of hundreds of children, and pulls out their entrails. He becomes disgusted with what he is doing, but desiring to "look professional" to the other officials, does not stop.
Alan's sexual training began with his mother, who told him that the sexual act was dirty, but that he could find true love and contentment by way of religious devotion and marriage. During this time he also begins to show a sexual attraction to horses, desiring to pet their thick coats, feel their muscular bodies and smell their sweat. Alan reveals to Dysart that he had first encountered a horse at age six, on the beach. A rider approached him, and took him up on the horse. Alan was visibly excited, but his parents found him and his father pulled him violently off the horse. The horse rider scoffed at the father and rode off.
In another key scene, Dysart hypnotises Alan, and during the hypnosis, Dysart reveals elements of his terrifying dream of the ritual murder of children. This is only one of numerous "confessions" that take place in the play. Dysart begins to jog Alan's memory by filling in blanks of the dialogue, and asking questions. Alan reveals that he wants to help the horses by removing the bit, which enslaves them. Enslaved and tortured "like Jesus?" asks Dysart, and Alan replies "Yes."
Alan has a job working in a shop selling electrical goods, where he meets Jill Mason. She visits the shop wanting blades for horse-clippers. Alan is instantly interested when he discovers that Jill has such close contact with horses. Jill suggests that Alan work for the owner of the stables, Harry Dalton, and Alan agrees. Alan is held by Dalton to be a model worker, since he keeps the stables immaculately clean and grooms the horses, including one named "Nugget". Through Dysart's questioning, it becomes clear that Alan is fixated on Nugget (or Equus) and secretly takes him for midnight rides, bareback and naked. Alan also envisions himself as a king, on the godhead Equus, both destroying their enemies.
After being given a placebo "truth pill" by Dysart, Alan reveals a tryst with Jill and begins re-enacting the event. Jill, who had taken an interest in Alan, had asked him to take her to an adult cinema. While there, they ran into Frank. Alan was traumatised, particularly when he realised that his father was lying when he tried to justify his presence in the theatre. However, this occurrence allows Alan to realise that sex is a natural thing for all men—even his father. Alan walks Jill home after they leave. She convinces Alan to come to the stables with her.
Once there, she seduces Alan and the two start having sex. However, Alan breaks this off when he hears the horses making noises in the stables beneath. Jill tries to ask Alan what the problem is, but he shouts at her to leave. He begs the horses for forgiveness, as he sees the horses as God-like figures. "Mine!...You're mine!...I am yours and you are mine!" cries Equus through Dysart, but then he becomes threatening. "The Lord thy God is a Jealous God", Equus/Dysart seethes, "He sees you, He sees you forever and ever, Alan. He sees you!...He sees you!" Alan screams, "God seest!" Then he says, "No more. No more, Equus." With that he blinds the horses, whose eyes have "seen" his very soul, with a hoof pick.
The play concludes with Dysart questioning the fundamentals of his practice and whether or not what he does will actually help Alan, as the effect of his treatment will remove Alan's intense sexual and religious commitment, and his worship of the horses. Earlier, Dysart had asked Hesther Salomon what it would be like to be robbed of the ability to worship. He also reflects again on his own life, his envy of Alan's passion, and what he imagines is a bit in his mouth.
Equus was presented in Baltimore, in 1979 by the Lovegrove Alley Theatre. The production starred a pre-Broadway Charles S. Dutton in the role of Dysart. Director Brad Mays did double-duty in the role of Alan Strang. A young actress named Lauren Raher played Jill Mason, and her real-life mother Rhona Raher portrayed Dora, Alan's mother.
Equus was revived in 2007 in the West End by producers David Pugh and Dafydd Rogers, starring Richard Griffiths and Daniel Radcliffe in the leading roles. The production was directed by Thea Sharrock, and opened in February 2007 at the Gielgud Theatre. The production attracted a lot of press attention, as both Radcliffe and Griffiths appear in the Harry Potter film series (as Harry Potter and Vernon Dursley). In particular the casting of then 17-year-old Radcliffe caused some controversy, since the role of Alan Strang required him to appear nude on stage. This was despite the fact that many other young actors over the years had performed the play naked. Radcliffe insisted that the nude scene was not "gratuitous" and that he should portray the character and the scene as called for by the script. Peter Firth gave more than 1,000 performances as Alan Strang; however, Radcliffe has stated in interviews that he chose not to watch the 1977 film, as he did not want to be influenced by Firth's interpretation of the character. The 2007 London revival was then transferred to Broadway, at the Broadhurst Theatre, running through 8 February 2009. Radcliffe and Griffiths reprised their roles, and Thea Sharrock returned as director. The cast also included Anna Camp, Carolyn McCormick, Lorenzo Pisoni, T. Ryder Smith, Graeme Malcolm, Sandra Shipley, with Collin Baja, Tyrone Jackson, Spencer Liff, Adesola Osakalumi and Marc Spaulding. Radcliffe eventually received a nomination for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play.
Awards and nominations
- 1975 Drama Desk Award Outstanding New Foreign Play
- 1975 Tony Award Best Play
- 1975 Tony Award Best Featured Actress in a Play – Frances Sternhagen (nominated)
- 1975 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award Best Play
- 2009 Drama Desk Award Best Leading actor in a Play – Daniel Radcliffe (nominated)
- 2009 Tony Award Best Sound Design of a Play – Gregory Clarke (nominated)
- 2009 Tony Award Best Lighting Design of a Play – David Hersey (nominated)
- "Equus". Discussion Guides for Penguin Classics. The Great Books Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- Pearce, Ian (18 March 2008). "Review: EQUUS". Theater and Dance Reviews. www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- "EQUUS: About The Show". EQUUS on Broadway. The Shubert Organization. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
- Lord, Sarah (4 May 1979). "Jolted to the Roots (Review)". The Columbia Times.
- Strausbaugh, John (10 May 1979). "Carefully Crafted 'Equus' at Lovegrove Theatre (Review)". Baltimore City Paper.
- Giuliano, Mike (21 May 1979). "Lovegrove's 'Equus' Powerful First Production (Review)". Baltimore News American.
- Staff writers (28 July 2006). "Naked stage role for Potter star". BBC News. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
- Campbell, Nancy, Frances McDowall, Nicolas McDowall, The Old Stile Press... the Next Ten Years: A Bibliography 2000–2010 (2010: Old Stile Press) ISBN 978-0-907664-85-7
- "The American Theatre Wing's Tony Awards". TonyAwards.com. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Equus (play).|
- Equus at the Internet Broadway Database
- Equus (film) at the Internet Movie Database
- Second-Graders Wow Audience With School Production Of Equus. — parody; The Onion
- Audience get up close and personal for Harry Potter star's nude debut. The London Standard October 12, 2006.
- Wolfe, G. Enjoying Equus: Jouissance in Shaffer’s Play. PSYART: A Hyperlink Journal for the Psychological Study of the Arts. December 15, 2009.
- Mahmood, R. Equus: Saving the best for last. The Express Tribune March 12, 2012.