He was born in Uichteritz near Weißenfels in the province Saxonia of Germany. As a 15-year-old boy he started his studies in Schulpforta, an old humanistic gymnasium. He became a student of poetology and theology in the University of Leipzig between 1691 and 1697. He was next stationed as Pastor in Bibra and diaconus (deacon) for the duke of Saxonia-Weissenfels. From 1705 to 1715, he was superintendent in Sorau (today Zary in Poland). As an adult, he would become a vehement opponent of Pietism. He is remembered for several hymns, including "Jesus, Great and Wondrous Star" and "Sinners Jesus Will Receive". He died in Hamburg as an honoured main pastor. His burial in the St. Jacobi Church was destroyed during World War II.
Neumeister wrote a number of cantata texts for the entire church year which were used by Johann Sebastian Bach. He completed his first cycle of cantata texts in 1700 and published four years later, and began adding biblical words and chorales from his third cycle onwards. His fifth cycle of 1716 uses ode form.