Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz, BWV 136
|Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz|
|Church cantata by J.S. Bach|
|Related||Missa in A major|
|Occasion||Eighth Sunday after Trinity|
|Performed||18 July 1723Leipzig –|
|Bible text||Psalms 139:29|
|Chorale||by Johann Heermann|
|Vocal||SATB choir; solo alto, tenor, bass|
Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz (Examine me, God, and discover my heart), BWV 136, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in 1723 in Leipzig for the eighth Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 18 July 1723.
History and words
Bach composed the cantata in his first year in Leipzig for the eighth Sunday after Trinity, in his position as Thomaskantor. The prescribed readings for the Sunday are from the Epistle to the Romans, "For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God" (Romans 8:12–17), and from the Gospel of Matthew, the warning of false prophets from the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 7:15–23). The sources show, however, that only the middle section of movement 3 and the chorale were composed then with certainty. The other parts may rely on a former unknown secular or church cantata. The opening chorus is based on Psalms 139:29. The poet of the recitatives and arias, which are closely connected to the Sunday's gospel, is unknown. The chorale is verse 9 of Johann Heermann's "Wo soll ich fliehen hin" (1630) on the melody of "Auf meinen lieben Gott", which Bach used again in 1724 as the base for his chorale cantata Wo soll ich fliehen hin, BWV 5.
Scoring and structure
- Chorus: Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz
- Recitative (tenor): Ach, daß der Fluch, so dort die Erde schlägt
- Aria (alto): Es kömmt ein Tag
- Recitative (bass): Die Himmel selber sind nicht rein
- Aria (tenor, bass): Uns treffen zwar der Sünden Flecken
- Chorale: Dein Blut, der edle Saft
The opening chorus is mainly in two parts (A and A'), with choral fugues on the same themes, both presenting the complete text. An extended instrumental ritornello, dominated by the horn, is heard before, between and after the choral sections. The first fugue is preceded by a choral "Devise" (statement). Throughout the movement the two oboes never play independently but double the violins in the ritornelli and the soprano in the vocal sections. Bach used this movement later as the basis for the "Cum Sancto Spiritu" of his Missa in A major.
The two recitatives are mostly secco, only the last measures of movement 4 tend to an arioso. The aria is accompanied by the oboe d'amore, the middle section (certainly composed in 1723) is marked presto. The two violins in unison accompany the duet, while the voices sing sometimes in imitation, sometimes in homophony, in the style of duets Bach wrote in Köthen.
The chorale is expanded to five parts by an independent violin, similar to the chorale of Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! BWV 172.
- Die Bach Kantate Vol. 44, conductor Helmuth Rilling, Gächinger Kantorei, Bach-Collegium Stuttgart, Helen Watts, Kurt Equiluz, Niklaus Tüller, Hänssler 1978
- J.S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk – Sacred Cantatas Vol. 7, conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Tölzer Knabenchor, Concentus Musicus Wien, Paul Esswood, Kurt Equiluz, Walter Heldwein, Teldec 1983
- J.S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 7, conductor Ton Koopman, Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir, Bogna Bartosz, Gerd Türk, Klaus Mertens, Antoine Marchand 1997
- J.S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 11 – Cantatas from Leipzig 1723 IV, conductor Masaaki Suzuki, Bach Collegium Japan, Kai Wessel, Makoto Sakurada, Peter Kooy, BIS 1998
- Bach Edition Vol. 12 – Cantatas Vol. 15, conductor Pieter Jan Leusink, Holland Boys Choir, Netherlands Bach Collegium, Sytse Buwalda, Nico van der Meel, Bas Ramselaar, Brilliant Classics 2000
- J.S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 5, conductor John Eliot Gardiner, Monteverdi Choir, English Baroque Soloists, Robin Tyson, Christoph Genz, Brindley Sherratt, Soli Deo Gloria 2000
- Dürr, Alfred (1981). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German) 1 (4 ed.). Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. pp. 379–382. ISBN 3-423-04080-7.
- Gardiner, John Eliot (2004). "Cantatas for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity / Christkirche, Rendsburg" (PDF). Bach Cantatas Website. p. 4. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- "Bach: Cantatas Vol 11 / Suzuki, Bach Collegium Japan". ArkivMusic. 1999. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Quinn, John (2009). "Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) The Bach Cantata Pilgrimage - Volume 5 Cantatas for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity". Retrieved 15 July 2010. Unknown parameter
The first source is the score.
Several databases provide additional information on each cantata:
- Cantata BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz history, scoring, sources for text and music, translations to various languages, discography, discussion, Bach Cantatas Website
- BWV 136 – "Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz" English translation, discussion, Emmanuel Music
- Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz history, scoring, Bach website (German)
- BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz English translation, University of Vermont
- BWV 136 Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz text, scoring, University of Alberta (German)