Ergenekon

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For the alleged organization within Turkey, see Ergenekon (organization).

Ergenekon or Ergeneqon is a Mongolian creation myth.[1][2]

Mongolian version[edit]

Ergenekon (Mongolian: Эргүнэ Хун/Ergüne Khun) was the refuge of the progenitors of the Mongols, Nekuz and Qiyan, as told in the 14th century literary history Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, written by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani.[1][3][4][5] It is a common epic in Mongol mythologies.

Abulghazi Bahadur, khan of the Khanate of Khiva (1643–63), told of the Ergenekon Mongolian creation myth in his work 17th century "Shajara-i turk" (Genealogy of the Turks).[4][5]

Turkic version[edit]

Some Turkish researchers claim the myth's Turkic origins, citing similarities between Göktürks and the Ergenkon epic;[5] the first to make the comparison was Joseph de Guignes-[6] however, the relationship is contested.[7] According to Turkish mythology, Ergenekon is the name of a legendary valley where the Turks took refuge and were trapped for four centuries- until a blacksmith created a passage by melting rock, allowing the gray wolf Asena to lead them out.[8][9][10][11][12][13] A New Year's ceremony commemorates the legendary ancestral escape from Ergenekon.[14]

In Turkish literature[edit]

Translations and poems[edit]

In the late Ottoman era, the Ergenekon epic enjoyed use in Turkish literature (especially by the Turkish nationalist movement), describing a mythical Turkic place of origin located in the inaccessible valleys of the Altay Mountains.

In 1864 Ahmed Vefik Pasha translated Shajara-i turk into the Ottoman language under the title Şecere-i Evşâl-i Türkiyye,[15] published in Tasvir-i Efkâr newspaper.[16] Ziya Gökalp's poem put the Ergenekon epic in the context of Turkic history (Turkish text), published as "Türk An'anesi: Ergenekon" in Türk Duygusu magazine from May 8 to June 5, 1913,[17] Altın Armağan [18] in September 1913,[19] and under the title of "Ergenekon" in Kızılelma, 1914.[20] Ömer Seyfettin's poem on the topic was published in Halka Doğru magazine, April 9, 1914.[16][21] Rıza Nur translated Shajara-i turk into modern Turkish in 1925,[22] and mentioned Ergenekon in Oğuznâme, published in Alexandria, 1928.[23]

Turkish history thesis and the Ergenekon legend[edit]

During the early republican era of Turkey- especially in 1930s, when ethnic nationalism held its sway in Turkey -the tale of the Bozkurt, Asena and Ergenekon were promoted[24] along with Turkish ethnocentrism, and included in history textbooks as the Göktürk creation myth.[25][26]

In 1933, Şevket Süreyya Aydemir, a Turkish intellectual and a founder and a key theorist of the Kadro movement, consubstantiated the Ergenekon epic with the Turkish revolution.[27] In the new Turkish version of the Egenekon Legend, the motif of the Gray Wolf (Turkish: Bozkurt) was added[28] (Turkish text, version of Ministry of National Education of Turkey).

Criticisms[edit]

According to Ergun Candan, there are some similarities between the mythologies of other cultures in their symbolism. The she-wolf Asena showed the Turks the way through the labyrinth of valleys and mountain passes. According to Ergun Candan, the she-wolf may be seen as a symbol of the "dog star" Sirius.[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh
  2. ^ Abulghazi Bahadur, "Genealogy of the Turk"
  3. ^ Jiexian Chen, Guoli Taiwan daxue, Proceedings of the Fifth East Asian Altaistic Conference, December 26, 1979 – January 2, 1980, Taipei, China, National Taiwan University, 1980. According to Reshideddin's record original Mongols, historically, were divided in two parts. They are: 1. Those branches descended from the Original Mongol Tribes, which had been in ارکننه قون Ergenekon… Those tribes are: The origin of Mongols were descendants from these two persons, Nekuz and Qiyan and their wifes who escaped to Ergenkon. (English)
  4. ^ a b Bahaeddin Ögel, Türk Mitolojisi Vol. I, Milli Eğitim basımevi, İstanbul, 1971., Türk Mitolojisi I: 'Kaynakları ve Açıklamaları İle Destanlar, Tütk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara, 1989, pp. 14–5. (Turkish)
  5. ^ a b c Dursun Yıldırım, "Ergenekon Destanı", Türkler, Vol. 3, Yeni Türkiye, Ankara, 2002, ISBN 9756782366, pp. 527–43. (Turkish)
  6. ^ Bahaaddin Ögel, "Doğu Göktürkleri Hakkında Vesikalar ve Notlar", Belleten, XXI/81, Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1957, p. 105. (Turkish)
  7. ^ Ibid, p. 109.
  8. ^ Oriental Institute of Cultural and Social Research, Vol. 1-2, 2001, p.66
  9. ^ Murat Ocak, The Turks: Early ages, 2002, pp.76
  10. ^ Dursun Yıldırım, "Ergenekon Destanı", Türkler, Vol. 3, Yeni Türkiye, Ankara, 2002, ISBN 975-6782-36-6, pp. 527–43.
  11. ^ İbrahim Aksu: The story of Turkish surnames: an onomastic study of Turkish family names, their origins, and related matters, Volume 1, 2006 , p.87
  12. ^ H. B. Paksoy, Essays on Central Asia, 1999, p.49
  13. ^ Andrew Finkle, Turkish State, Turkish Society, Routledge, 1990, p.80
  14. ^ Michael Gervers, Wayne Schlepp: Religion, customary law, and nomadic technology, Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies, 2000, p.60
  15. ^ Abu'l-Gâzî, Şecere-i Evşâl-i Türkiyye, [Ahmed Vefik Pasha neşri], Dersaadet, 1864.
  16. ^ a b İsa Özkan, "Ergenekon Destanı Hakkında", Türk Yurdu, Cilt: 29, Sayı: 265, Eylül 2009, pp. 43–7. (Turkish)
  17. ^ Mehmed Ziya, "Ergenekon", Türk Duygusu, no. 1, pp. 7-10.
  18. ^ "Ergenekon", Altın Armağan, no. 1 (Türk Yurdu, no. 24's supplement, Istanbul, 1328), p. 20.
  19. ^ Beşir Ayvazoğlu, "Ziya Gökalp'ın Ergenekon'u", Zaman, August 6, 2009, Retrieved July 24, 2010. (Turkish)
  20. ^ Ziya Gökalp, Ziya Gökalp Külliyatı I: Şiirler ve Halk Masalları, haz. Fevziye Abdullah Tansel, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara, 1989, s. xlii, 78-83. (Turkish)
  21. ^ Ali Duymaz, Ömer Seyfettin'in Kaleme Aldığı Destanlar Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme", Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisicilt:12, sayı: 21, Haziran 2009, p. 415. (Turkish)
  22. ^ Abu'l Gâzî, Şecere-i Türk, [Rıza Nur neşri], İstanbul, 1925.
  23. ^ Metin Özarslan, "Oğuz Kağan Destanı'nda Tarihî, Dinî, Beşerî ve Tabiatüstü Unsurlar", Prof. Dr. Dursun Yıldırım Armağanı, Ankara, 1998, p. 426. (Turkish)
  24. ^ Murat Arman, "The Sources of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism", CEU Political Science Journal, issue: 2 (2007), p. 136.
  25. ^ Türk Tarihinin Ana Hatları, Kaynak Yayınları, 1999, ISBN 975-343-118-X; p. 380. (first edition: 1930) (Turkish)
  26. ^ Tarih II: Kemalist Eğitimin Tarih Dersleri (1931 - 1941), Kaynak Yayınları, 2001, ISBN 975-343-319-0, p. 44. (first edition: 1931) (Turkish)
  27. ^ İlhan Tekeli, Selim İlkin, Kadrocuları ve Kadro'yu anlamak, Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, 2003, ISBN 9789753331708, p. 219. (Turkish)
  28. ^ Beşir Ayvazoğlu, "Ergenekon yurdun adı", Zaman, January 31, 2008, Retrieved July 24, 2010. (Turkish)
  29. ^ Candan, Ergun. (2002). Türklerin Kültür Kökenleri, Sınır Ötesi Yayınları, Istanbul, pp. ?113-4, ISBN 975-8312-11-1

External Sources[edit]