|Motives||Overthrowing the current government|
|Size||Several hundred suspects|
Ergenekon is the name given to an alleged clandestine, secularist ultra-nationalist organization in Turkey with possible ties to members of the country's military and security forces. The would-be group, named after Ergenekon, a mythical place located in the inaccessible valleys of the Altay Mountains, is accused of terrorism in Turkey.
Ergenekon is by some believed to be part of the "deep state." The existence of the "deep state" was affirmed in Turkish opinion after the Susurluk scandal in 1996. Alleged members have been indicted on charges of plotting to foment unrest, among other things by assassinating intellectuals, politicians, judges, military staff, and religious leaders, with the ultimate goal of toppling the incumbent government.
By April 2011, over 500 people had been taken into custody and nearly 300 formally charged with membership of what prosecutors described as "the Ergenekon terrorist organization," which they claimed had been responsible for virtually every act of political violence – and controlled every terrorist group – in Turkey over the last 30 years.
An organization named "Ergenekon" has been talked about since the Susurluk scandal, which exposed a similar gang. However, it is said that Ergenekon has undergone serious changes since then. The first person to publicly talk about the organization was retired naval officer Erol Mütercimler, who spoke of such an organization in 1997. Mütercimler said he heard of the original organization's existence from retired general Memduh Ünlütürk, who was involved in the anti-communist Ziverbey interrogations following the 1971 coup. Major general Ünlütürk told Mütercimler that Ergenekon was founded with the support of the CIA and the Pentagon. Mütercimler was detained during the Ergenekon investigation for questioning before being released.
Mütercimler and others, however, draw a distinction between the Ergenekon of today and the original one, which they equate with the Counter-Guerrilla; Operation Gladio's Turkish branch. Today's Ergenekon is said to be a "splinter" off the old one. The person whose testimony contributed most to the indictment, Tuncay Güney, described Ergenekon as a junta related to the Turkish Resistance Organization (Turkish: Türk Mukavemet Teşkilatı, TMT) operating in North Cyprus; the TMT was established by founding members of the Counter-Guerrilla. Former North Cyprus President Rauf Denktaş denied any connection of the TMT to Ergenekon.
Another position is that while some of the suspects may be guilty of something, there is no organization to which they are all party, and that the only thing they have in common is opposition to the AKP. There is evidence to suggest that some – but only some – of the defendants named in the indictments have been engaged in illegal activity and that others – again far from all – hold eccentric or distasteful political opinions and worldviews. There are also allegations that Ergenekon's agenda is in line with the policies of the NSC, elaborated in the top-secret "Red Book" (the National Security Policy Document).
- Secret and civil cells liaisons: Veli Küçük and Muzaffer Tekin.
- Lobbyists: M. Zekeriya Öztürk, Kemal Kerinçsiz, İsmail Yıldız, and Erkut Ersoy.
- NGO head: Sevgi Erenerol. Kemal Kerinçsiz (assistant).
- Theory, Propaganda, and Disinformation Department head: Doğu Perinçek.
- Mafia structuring head: Veli Küçük. Muzaffer Tekin (assistant).
- Underground contacts: Ali Yasak, Sami Hoştan, Semih Tufan Gülaltay, and Sedat Peker.
- Terrorist organizations heads: Veli Küçük and Doğu Perinçek.
- University structuring: Kemal Yalçın Alemdaroğlu, Emin Gürses, Habib Ümit Sayın.
- Research and information gathering head: Mehmet Zekeriya Öztürk.
- Judicial branch heads: Kemal Kerinçsiz, Fuat Turgut, and Nusret Senem.
Of those, the structure of only the "Theory" department had been revealed as of September 2008. Some have called Veli Küçük the leader in the organization. Şamil Tayyar of the Star daily says that Küçük is not "even among the top ten." MİT reportedly informed the prosecutor about the identity of the "number one" in the organization, but this will not be made public.
In most cases the name is shown as having derived from the Ergenekon myth; a place in Eurasia of mythological significance, esp. among nationalists (see Agartha). The legend was vigorously promulgated during the early years of the Turkish Republic as Atatürk sought to create a nation state in which national consciousness rather than religion served as the primary determinant of identity. With the growing number of detentions and subsequent court cases (see: Ergenekon (trials)) not many people still really understand what is happening. (also see chapter: Debate on Ergenekon)
Although the investigation was officially launched in 2007, the existence of the organization was known beforehand. The files on Ergenekon were discovered after a spy called Tuncay Güney got detained in March 2001 for petty fraud. Some say the crime was a ploy to set the investigation in motion. A police search of his house turned up the six sacks of evidence on which the indictment is based.
One month later, a columnist on good terms with the government, Fehmi Koru, was the first to break the news, under his usual pen name, Taha Kıvanç. His article was based on a key Ergenekon report dated 29 October 1999 and titled "Ergenekon: Analysis, Structuring, Management, and Development Project".
Tuncay Güney's testimony (2001) 
The person whose statements to the police in 2001 formed "the backbone of the indictment" was a spy named Tuncay Güney, alias "İpek". Güney is believed to be subordinate to Mehmet Eymür, formerly of the National Intelligence Organization (MİT)'s Counterterrorism Department. Eymür was discharged and his department disbanded in 1997. Güney's relationship to the MİT has been a matter of confusion; his boss was once a MİT employee, while the MİT says Güney was not (specifically, he was not a "registered informant") and that the MİT considered him a suspicious person.
He had allegedly been tasked with infiltrating the gendarmerie's intelligence agency, JITEM, and Ergenekon in 1992. Güney was apprehended in 2001 for issuing fake licenses and plates for luxury cars. He is still sentenced in absentia for this offense. No charges have been brought against him in the frame of the Ergenekon investigation, some say as a result of a bargain struck with the authorities. However, he is currently under investigation, and State Prosecutor Ziya Hurşit Karayurt has proposed that he be subpoenaed. The court is deliberating whether to consolidate his earlier case with the Ergenekon one. In addition, legal proceedings have been initiated to obtain his testimony from abroad using Interpol. Prosecutor Öz has prepared a list of 37 questions for Güney, who says he will co-operate if the questioning is done by the Canadian police.
Güney has been said to conflate fact and fiction, casting doubt over the indictment, which names him a "fugitive suspect" (Turkish: firari şüpheli). Güney is seen as such an important figure that rival press groups have exchanged columns accusing one another of attempting to influence public opinion by questioning his credibility. It is alleged that one the parties, Aydın Doğan, was asked not to publish material about Ergenekon, by Veli Küçük through Doğu Perinçek. In December 2008, Güney said that a Hürriyet reporter offered him a bribe not to talk about the newspaper, one of whose senior members is allegedly in Ergenekon. Hürriyet denied the allegations.
Grenades in Ümraniye (2007) 
The investigation officially began after the Trabzon Gendarmerie Headquarters' tip-off line received an anonymous call on 12 June 2007 saying that grenades and C-4 explosives were to be found at Güngör Sokak № 2, Çakmak Mahallesi, Ümraniye (Coordinates: ). A search warrant was immediately obtained from the Ümraniye 2. Peace Penal Court. 27 hand grenades (but no C-4) were found in a nylon-covered wooden chest on the roof of a slum at the stated address. According to the indictment, the caller was Şevki Yiğit, the father of the building's tenant, Ali Yiğit. Şevki found the bomb-filled chest by accident and asked his son about them. Ali then asked the owner of the house, his uncle Mehmet Demirtaş about it. According to Yiğit, Demirtaş responded that there was a chest with military equipment on the roof belonging to ÖHD NCO Oktay Yıldırım, and instructed him to keep quiet about it. Ali Yiğit added that retired captain Muzaffer Tekin and retired NCO Mahmut Öztürk, both of the special forces, once stopped by his grocery store (adjacent to the slum, and owned by Demirtaş) in a black Mercedes while Yıldırım was present, that Yıldırım left only to return with Öztürk 15–20 minutes later in a yellow Opel Corsa, and that his father found the bombs 3–4 months later. Yiğit said that his father, who lives in Trabzon, might have placed the call since he was not on good terms with Demirtaş.
The grenades were found to bear the same serial number as those used in 14 incidents throughout the country. They were disposed of two weeks after their discovery on account of their not being preservable.
A search of Yıldırım's office in Reina and Muzaffer Tekin's house revealed a secret document titled "Ergenekon Lobi" about the group's plans. The information in the documents led the authorities to revisit the Tuncay Güney case.
Yıldırım later denied the charges, though his fingerprints were found on the chest. During his trial, he referred to Demirtaş as a former subordinate soldier of his, and said that the four reports about his fingerprints contradicted one another. Yıldırım also alleged that Ali Yiğit failed to distinguish Tekin from Öztürk when brought to Bayrampaşa Prison. Cross-examining Yiğit, Yıldırım asked him if Demirtaş was present when the police searched for the grenades. Yiğit said "no", contradicting his earlier statement that Demirtaş had arrived after a phone call by the police. (Demirtaş said he was personally not present.)
At the thirteenth hearing, Ali Yiğit said that he mistook someone for Muzaffer Tekin, with whom he shared a cell in Bayrampaşa prison and bonded well enough to look up to as a father figure. He also stated that he had moved out of the building twenty days before they were found. After learning about the grenades, he left his job at the grocery, and became a taxi driver. He was allegedly driving by the house when the police came, and told them that the place was his so that they would not break down the door. However, his uncle Demirtaş did not trust Yiğit and left the keys to Yiğit's brother. They fetched the keys, searched the house, had Yiğit confirm that the grenades had been found and that the house had not been harmed, then took him to the station to obtain his statement, described above. After being detained, Yiğit says he was intimidated by Demirtaş, Kerinçsiz, Yıldırım, and his lawyer. Yıldırım allegedly pressured Yiğit to incriminate his father (Şevki) by calling him a weapons smuggler.
Demirtaş strongly denied having made the explanation about the origin of the chest, as alleged by Yiğit. Demirtaş alleged that Yiğit confided to him that he had only seen pictures of Tekin at the police station. According to Radikal, the police threatened him with 39 years in jail if he did not blame Oktay Yıldırım.
Material evidence 
A common objection to the investigation into the clandestine organization "Ergenekon" is that the group does not have the wherewithal to carry out large-scale militant acts. This section aims to clarify what is known about the munitions presented as evidence. This is also of relevance to linking acts allegedly carried out by the organization, as it has been alleged that weapons of the same type and serial number were found in several locations. Debate has focused in particular on the grenades, which can be uniquely identified by the fuse type (Turkish: fünye grubu) and batch number (Turkish: kafile numarası).
According to police officials, "HGR DM 41" indicates German origin, SPLITTER denotes a fragmentation grenade, "COMP-B" means composition B, "LOS" indicates European production up to NATO standards, while the number following "FMP" indicates the batch.
Discoveries until 2007 
- 4 December 1998: Two hand grenades were found in a house in Manisa province, Akhisar district.
- 26 February 1999: In İzmir province Urla district 10 hand grenades were found.
- 25 March 1999: In connection with an operation against the militant Islamic organization Hezbollah in Şırnak 41 people were arrested and of six hand grenades one was linked to the Ergenekon investigation.
- 26 May 1999: A hand grenade was thrown into the office of Nucu Portase in Trabzon province Of district.
- 30 December 2000: In İzmir province, Karşıyaka district a defence hand grenade was found.
- 29 July 2001: In Antalya province Alanya district three hand grenades were found in a hotel.
- 11 August 2001: In the centre of Hatay[disambiguation needed] a hand grenade was thrown at the car of Hayrettin Yavuz.
- 29 July 2002: A hand grenade was found in a dustbin in Kütahya.
- 27 February 2003: A hand grenade was found near the Eyüp Lyceum in İstanbul province Eyüp district.
- 18 May 2003: In the garden of Kerem Adıgüzel in Amasya province Merzifon district a hand grenade of MKE exploded.
- 25 November 2003: Hand grenades were found in the fields in Ağrı province Patnos district that had not exploded although the pins had been pulled.
- 9 May 2005: Two hand grenades were found on Serkan Şahin and Abdurrahman Dağ in Kırıkkale province Keskin district.
- 10 May 2006: A hand grenade thrown at the newspaper Cumhuriyet in İstanbul Şişli.
- 2 October 2006: In İzmir Konak district one of two hand grenades thrown into a coffee shop in Alsancak, killing İbrahim Çiftçi and injuring two persons reportedly relates to the Ergenekon investigation.
- 30 November 2006: In İstanbul Tuzla district a hand grenade of MKE brand was found.
- 11 December 2006: In the hotel "Iğdır Doğu" one MKE brand hand grenade was found.
- Akhisar and Eyüp
One of the two grenades recovered in Akhisar, Manisa had the serial number HGR DM 41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP 24. Another grenade from Eyüp, İstanbul had the serial number HGR DM 41 COMP-B LOS FMR-24.
- Urla, İzmir (1999)
One of the ten grenades had the serial number HGR DM 41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP 16.
- Şemdinli (2005)
- Cumhuriyet (2006)
Alparslan bombed the offices of the newspaper Cumhuriyet in May 2006. The grenades did not go off in his first two attempts; he succeeded on his third. The NATO standard, Makine ve Kimya Endüstrisi Kurumu (MKE) model 44 grenades had the following serial numbers:
- TAPA M 204 A 2/KF-MKE-91 12-77 (5 May 2006)
- TAPA M 204 A 2/KF-MKE-173 9-85 (10 May 2006)
- TAPA M 204 A 2/KF-MKE-91 12-77 (11 May 2006)
The part before the slash denotes the fuse type, while the part after it denotes the batch number. For example, the batch number of the first entry means 'batch 91, December 1977'. The army bought 8800 such grenades from the MKE in 1978.
Discoveries in 2007 
- Ümraniye, İstanbul (12 June 2007)
The serial numbers of some of the 27 grenades found in Ümraniye are:
- HGR DM 41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP 16
- HGR DM 41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP 24
- HGR DM 41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP 22
- TAPA M 204 A2/KF-MKE-169 5-85
These grenades are registered to the Hasdal barracks in Istanbul.
- Fikret Emek (26 June 2007)
The recovered materiel included 11 kg of C-3, a telescopic rifle, a Kalashnikov, a shotgun, M-16 shells, 12 grenades (10 from the MKE), smoke bombs, 12 210g TNT setups, 6 500g TNT moulds, a 1.5 kg TNT mould, a 1 kg demolition block, ignition munitions. This is sufficient to flatten a twelve-floor reinforced concrete structure, with each floor over 400 m2. The grenades have serial number TAPA M204 A2/KF-MKE-91 12-77, matching the ones from the Cumhuriyet attack.
Discoveries after 2007 
- Trabzon (13 December 2008)
With the help of a tip-off on 3 December 2008, the Trabzon police found nine grenades of the same batch number as those in Ümraniye. In nearby Yomra, the police seized a gun and eight 7.65 mm bullets for it, a Kalashnikov rifle and three chargers, a total of 420 7.62 mm Kalashnikov bullets and a grenade. In the city, eight grenades were found; seven hidden inside a washing machine, and another in an oven. Trabzon governor Nuri Okutan said that none of the suspects were public officials or members of the military. The serial numbers of the Trabzon grenades are:
- HGR DM 41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP 143
- HGR DM 41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP 197
- HGR DM 41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP 125
The grenades in Ümraniye had also been found following a tip-off in Trabzon. However, the former tip-off was to the gendarmerie rather than the police.
- Mustafa Dönmez (7 January 2009)
- İbrahim Şahin (7 January 2009)
Three drawings and 9 unlicensed Glock pistols were found in the home of special forces police chief İbrahim Şahin. The drawings led to the excavation of 8000 bullets (mostly Uzi), 2 light-weight anti-tank weapons, 1 kg of plastic explosives, 10 hand grenades whose serial numbers had been removed and 10 smoke bombs. The recovered weapons were determined to be buried in July 2008 (the month generals Eruygur and Tolon were detained). They are reported to be different from the ones that were entrusted to Şahin's department and went missing after Susurluk scandal.
- Poyrazköy (April 2009)
During excavations in Poyrazköy in Beykoz district, Istanbul that lasted from 21 to 28 April 2009 arms including 21 LAW arms, 14 hand grenades and 450 grams explosives were found. The discovery resulted in a separate court case known as the Poyrazköy case.
- Erzincan (27 October 2009)
On 19 November 2009 the General Directorate for Security informed the prosecutor's office in Erzurum that the munition found at the Çatalarmut Dam in Erzincan Province could be related to 30 incidents. The bombs found at Çatalarmut Dam numbered HGR DM41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP-134 were from the same series as one of the hand grenades numbered HGR DM41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP-134 used in the Şemdinli bombing. The bomb found in Çatalarmut numbered MKE MOD45 MKE-1-18 08-89 and the one thrown at Akkoyunlu Police Station in Istanbul Ümraniye on 22 November 2000 belonged to the same tag group. The same could be said for one of three hand grenades that on 30 January 2006 killed the police officer Cenk İce working in a clinic in Eşrefpaşa (Izmir). The bomb found in Çatalarmut numbered HGR DM41 SPLITTER COMP-B LOS FMP-19 belonged to the same group as the hand grenade found on 20 March 2000 in the house of the PKK militant Seyfettin Işık in Mardin province Midyat district. Of the five hand grenades found on 20 May 2004 during the search of a house belonging to the PKK in Adana province İncirlik district had the same table number as the ones found in Çatalarmut (HGR Z DM72 LOS FMP-19).
Legal Proceedings 
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The first hearing was held on 20 October 2008. Retired public prosecutor Mete Göktürk estimated that they would last at least one year. Most of the cases related to Ergenekon are handled by Istanbul Heavy Penal Court 12 and 13 (formerly Istanbul State Security Court 4 and 5). The original three prosecutors were Zekeriya Öz (prosecutor-in-chief), Mehmet Ali Pekgüzel and Nihat Taşkın. The judge was Köksal Şengün. Most trials are held at a prison complex in Istanbul's Silivri neighborhood. At the beginning the courtroom could accommodate about 280 people.
The investigation exposed alleged links between an armed attack on the Turkish Council of State in 2006 that left a judge dead, a bombing of a secularist newspaper, threats and attacks against people accused of being unpatriotic and the 1996 Susurluk incident, as well as links to the plans of some groups in the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) to overthrow the present government. According to the investigation, Ergenekon had a role in the murder of Hrant Dink, a prominent journalist of Armenian descent Italian priest Father Andrea Santoro in February 2006 and the brutal murders of three Christians, one a German national, killed in the province of Malatya in April 2007. Furthermore, files about JİTEM related the assassination of former JİTEM commander Cem Ersever, killed in November 1993, to Ergenekon. A former JİTEM member, Abdülkadir Aygan, said that JİTEM is the military wing of Ergenekon.
The indictment exposes questionable relations between Ergenekon and the outlawed Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and the Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C), raising serious suspicions that Ergenekon might have played a role in inciting ethnic hatred between Turks and Kurds and increasing sectarian tensions between Sunnis and Alevis by a series of provocative acts. Zaman quoted a senior intelligence officer, Bülent Orakoğlu, as having said that the PKK, Dev Sol, Hezbollah, and Hizb ut-Tahrir are artificial organizations set up by the network, and that Abdullah Öcalan himself was an Ergenekon member. Zaman's claims have been disputed.
Öcalan dismissed allegations made by intelligence officer Bülent Orakoğlu concerning himself, but he did say that a group inside the PKK, which he called the Zaza Group, had links with Ergenekon. He said that this group was led by Sait Çürükkaya and tried to seize control of the PKK, adding "Particularly in the Diyarbakır-Muş-Bingöl triangle, they have staged intensive and bloody attacks." The brother of Sait Çürükkaya, Selim Çürükkaya had earlier written a book "When secrets get decoded" (tr: Sırlar Çözülürken) accusing Abdullah Öcalan of being a member of Ergenekon.
Responding to allegations in Taraf, DHKP/C issued a press release ridiculing claims of its connection to Ergenekon.
By May 2009, 142 people had been formally charged with membership of the "Ergenekon armed terrorist organization" in two massive indictments totalling 2,455 and 1,909 pages respectively. Further trials followed and in March 2011 the State owned Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) presented the following figures:
- So far 176 hearing in the first trial. After the case was merged with the case related to an armed attack on the Turkish Council of State in 2006 the number of defendants increased to 96.
- So far 107 hearings in the second trial.
- Investigation under the titles of "cage action plan" (tr: Kafes Eylem Planı), "planned assassination of admirals" (tr: Amirallare Suikast) and "Poyrazköy" (village in Beykoz district of Istanbul) were merged as the Poyrazköy case. There are 69 defendants, seven of them in pre-trial detention.
- An indictment as part of the Ergenekon investigations carries the title: "Plans to intervene in democracy" (tr: Demokrasiye Müdahale Planı).
- Another court case around the Association for Support of Contemporary Life (tr: Çağdaş Yaşamı Destekleme Derneği ÇYDD) and the Foundation for Contemporary Education (tr: Çağdaş Eğitim Vakfı ÇEV) was to start on 18 March 2011 with eight board members on trial.
- Arms found in Şile on 28 July 2008 resulted in a trial with four defendants, two of them in pre-trial detention.
- A trial has been ongoing following several raids of the offices of OdaTV and the homes of many of its personnel in 2011. In the case, fourteen journalists  are charged with conspiring with Ergenekon.
Debate on Ergenekon 
In August 2008, 300 intellectuals from Turkey declared their support for the investigation and called upon all civil and military institutions to deepen the investigation in order to reveal the rest of the people tied to Ergenekon. This initial wave of optimism has since waned, and there is a growing mass of intellectuals and policy analysts who dismiss the possibility of Ergenekon carrying out the deeds attributed to it by the public prosecution as laid out in the indictment and trial proceedings. Many people have criticized the manner in which the Ergenekon investigation is being conducted, citing in particular the length of the indictment, wiretapping in breach of privacy laws, and illegal collection of evidence.
Some commentators have suggested the trials are being used to suppress opponents of the AKP government. Commenting on the arrest of former chief of staff İlker Başbuğ in January 2012, former United States Ambassador to Turkey Eric S. Edelman said the Ergenekon arrests "underscore the serious questions about Turkey's continued commitment to press freedom and the rule of law."
See also 
- State connections to murder of journalist Hrant Dink being ignored, warns BIANET, IPS Communication Foundation (BIANET), 2008
- Acar, Erkan (2008-09-06). "Ergenekon has links to security and judiciary bodies". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- Ergenekon- Guide to Ergekon, Accused of Terrorism in Turkey, by Amy Zalman, About.com
- Freely, Maureen (May 2007). "Why they killed Hrant Dink". Index on Censorship 36 (2): 15–29. doi:10.1080/03064220701334477. "The deep state is Turkish shorthand for a faceless clique inside the Turkish state that has, some claim, held the reins of real power throughout the republic's 84-year history. There are some who see it on a continuum with the shady networks that 'took care of business' (including, some believe, the Armenian business) in the last years of the Ottoman Empire. The deep state is held to be based in the army, but closely linked with MIT (the national intelligence service), the judiciary, and (since the 1960s) the mafia."
- "Ergenekon-linked generals renowned for hawkish stance". Today's Zaman. 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-09. "Susurluk"
- Burke, Jason (2008-05-04). "Mystery of a killer elite fuels unrest in Turkey". The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
- Rainsford, Sarah (2008-02-04). "'Deep state plot' grips Turkey". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Tugal, Cihan (2008-08-29). "Party of one". National. Retrieved 2008-09-23. "The network has been compared to the “Gladio” in Italy"
- Atilla, Toygun (2006-05-24). "’Ergenekon’ yapılanması". Hürriyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-08-14. "Ergenekon, Gladio’nun Türkiye’deki yapılanması olarak kabul ediliyor."
- Gareth Jenkins THE FADING MASQUERADE: ERGENEKON AND THE POLITICS OF JUSTICE IN TURKEY, in Turkey Analyst, Vol. 4 No. 7 of 4 April 2011; accessed on 18 April 2011
- Maman, Kamil (2008-07-07). "Ergenekon is above General Staff, MİT". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
- Can Dündar (1997-01-07). "Ergenekon". 40 Dakika. 13:40 minutes in. Show TV. http://www.candundar.com.tr/index.php?Did=5983.
- Zelyut, Rıza (2008-03-30). "Türk Ordusu’nu sivil yargıya mahkum ettirecekler". Akşam (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2008-08-26. "Bu işkencehane, İstanbul Erenköy’deki meşhur Ziverbey Köşkü’dür.
İşkencecilerin başında General Memduh Ünlütürk bulunmaktadır."
- "Kim kimdir? İşadamı, gazeteci, profesör, emekli komutan". Radikal (in Turkish). 2008-07-02. Retrieved 2008-08-26. "Ünlütürk Paşa kendisinin de Ergenekon’un içinde olduğunu söyledi ve dedi ki, ‘Ergenekon Genelkurmay’ın da, hükümetlerin de, bürokrasinin de herkesin üstünde bir örgüt. Yasayla falan kurulmuş değil. 27 Mayıs darbesinden sonra CIA, Pentagon tarafından kurdurtulmuş. Bunun içindeki insanlar da buraya hizmet eden insanlar. Ama bunlar vatana ihanet olsun diye hizmet etmez. ‘Biz vatanı kurtarıyoruz’ düşüncesiyle örgütün içinde yer almışlardır. Ben daha başka insanlardan Ergenekon’u araştırdığımda şunu gördüm. İçinde subaylar var, emniyetçiler var, profesörler var, gazeteciler var, işadamları var, sıradan insanlar var. Bugün çeteler dediğimiz bu küçük birimler var ya, işte bu birimler Ergenekon’un içinde birer bölüm, birer parça." Unknown parameter
- Dündar, Can (2008-11-05). "Bizim Ergenekon". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-07-10. Unknown parameter
- Jenkins, Gareth (2008-07-29). "Ergenekon Indictment Dashes Hopes Of Final Reckoning With Turkey’s "Deep State"". Eurasia Daily Monitor (Jamestown Foundation) 5 (144). Retrieved 2008-11-15.
- Maman, Kamil (2008-11-26). "Ergenekon is a tiny piece of the deeper state, says Mihri Belli". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-11-25. "Ergenekon must merely be a part of the counter guerrilla that they discarded. The main body is still active."
- Ergenekon İddianamesi (in Turkish). Milliyet. p. 887.
- "Ergenekon'un Kıbrıs'la bağlantısı yok". CNN TÜRK (in Turkish). 2008-11-11. Retrieved 2008-12-10. "Söylerler, bağlantısı var diye, bana kadar galiba parmağını gösterenler oldu. Alakası yok, nedir yani bu. Türk Mukavemet Teşkilatı'na (TMT) bulaştırmak istediler, alakası yok bunların. Bunlar safsata."
- Berlinski, Claire (2008-11-13). "Ergenekon: Turkey's conspiracy to end them all". First Post. Retrieved 2008-11-29. Unknown parameter
- Gareth Jenkins, Between Fact and Fantasy: Turkey's Ergenekon Investigation (Silk Road Studies, August 2009); accessed on 16 May 2011
- Çiftçi, Çetin (2008-08-21). "Yayınevi cinayetinde Ergenekon izleri". Zaman (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-06. "Ayrıca Ergenekon'un, emirleri şahıslardan değil direkt olarak 'Milli Güvenlik Siyaset Belgesi'nden aldığı belirtiliyor."
- Sariboga, Veli (2008-09-21). "'Bir Numara' örgütü 6 hücreden yönetiyor". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- "Beş hücre hâlâ deşifre edilemedi". Sabah (in Turkish). 2008-09-21. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- "Ergenekon organization chart mapped out". Today's Zaman. 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2008-11-15.
- "Ergenekon 1992'de Gebze'de kuruldu". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2008-12-17. "Ergenekon 1992'de Veli Küçük'ün Gebze'deki makam odasında yapılan bir toplantıyla birlikte kuruldu. Kurucusu Veli Küçük'tür. Toplantıda Veli Amca, Sedat Peker ve iki kişi daha vardı." Unknown parameter
- Düzel, Neşe (2008-02-16). "EU process victim of and solution to Ergenekon". sendika.org. Retrieved 2011-05-18. "Ergenekon'da ilk ona bile zor girer Veli Küçük."
- Ocak, Serkan (2008-12-26). "1 numara’yı sadece mahkeme görebilir". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-27. Unknown parameter
- Becerikli, Uğur (2008-02-01). "Operasyonda Ergenekon ismi MHP'lileri kızdırdı". Sabah. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- Joost Lagendijk: Ergenekon, gut feelings and facts (1) Hürriyet Daily News of 5 January 2010; accessed on 16 May 2011
- "‘Ergenekon Temel Belgesi’ni ortaya Fehmi Koru çıkarmış". Milliyet (in Turkish). 2008-09-23. Retrieved 2008-09-23. Unknown parameter
- Kıvanç, Taha (2001-04-30). "Hayaller gerçek galiba". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-23.
- Alus, Esra (2008-07-29). "Ergenekon banka kuracak, ticaret yapacakmış!". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-08-10.
- "Ergenekon İddianamesi". Milliyet (in Turkish). p. 32. Retrieved 2008-09-23.
- Güney, Sedat (2008-09-25). "Ex-police chief Saçan probed over Ergenekon cover-up allegations". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-11-15.[dead link]
- Arslan, Adem Yavuz (2009-01-07). "İşte Türkiye'yi sarsacak o gizli belge". Bugün (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- Berkan, Ismet (2009-01-08). "Manipülasyon ve Ergenekon". Radikal. Retrieved 2009-01-07. Unknown parameter
- Undersecretariat (2008-11-26). "Response to an article in the newspaper Sabah" (Press release) (in Turkish). Milli İstihbarat Teşkilatı. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
- "MİT'ten Güney açıklaması". Sabah (in Turkish). 2008-11-27. Retrieved 2008-11-27.[dead link]
- "MİT sent Güney to infiltrate Ergenekon, document shows". Today's Zaman. 2008-11-27. Retrieved 2008-11-27.[dead link]
- Gürol, Nezih (2008-08-29). "Tuncay Güney’in davası 7 yıldır sürüyor". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-16. Unknown parameter
- Ocak, Serkan (2008-11-07). "‘Güney’in ifadesinden 42 sayfa eksik’". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-04. "Bu kişiden çıkan belgelerden dolayı birçok sanık huzurdadır. Ancak bu kişi hakkında dava açılmıyor. Bunu engelleyen nedir? Savcıyla bu kişi arasında bir anlaşmamı vardır." Unknown parameter
- "Tuncay Güney'e terör örgütü üyeliğinden soruşturma". Radikal. Anadolu Agency. 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2008-12-04. Unknown parameter
- "Güney'e dair davalar için 'Ergenekon' incelenecek". CNN TÜRK (in Turkish). 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- Maman, Kamil (2008-12-14). "Tuncay Güney'in cip davasının Ergenekon'la birleştirilmesi gündemde". Zaman (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- "Tuncay Güney'in ifadesi için hukuki işlem başlatılacak". Zaman (in Turkish). 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Kazanci, Murat; Canikligil, Razi (2009-01-08). "Öz’ün 37 sorusuna Güney’den jet yanıt: Ben de soracağım". Hürriyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-07. "Beni kim sorgulayacak, Türk polisi mi? Yoksa Kanada polisi mi? Kanada’da demokrasi var. Nasıl olacağını bilmiyorum. Avukatımı da çağırırım, gelirler, oturur konuşuruz. Ben de onlara bir 37 soru hazırlarım. Bu soruları size de veririm aynı onlar gibi gazetede yayımlarız."
- Önal, Ayşe (2008-07-24). "Veli Küçük beni işten kovdurttu". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-21. "Tuncay doğruları, içine inanılmaz senaryolar ekleyerek anlatıyor." Unknown parameter
- Semin Gümüşel, Sibel Düler, Adem Demir (2008-11-04). "Tuncay Güney kimdir?". Newsweek Türkiye (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-02. "Avukatı olarak bana doğru söylemiyorsa kimseye söylemiyordur. Hakkındaki bilgi kirliliğine Tuncay bizzat sebep oluyor, popüler olmayı ve gündemde olmayı seviyor. İddialarının yüzde 90'nı kendi yarattığı dünyaya has."
- "Kilit haham iddianamede yok". Hürriyet. Dogan News Agency. 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2008-11-19. "Ceza Muhakemesi Kanununda iddianamenin iadesi için 15 günlük inceleme süresi içerisinde soruşturma dosyasındaki kısıt kararına rağmen tespit edebildiğimiz kadarıyla, Tuncay Güney'in ne sanık olarak ne de itirafçı olarak iddianamede ifadesinin alınmadığını öğrenmiş bulunmaktayız. İddianamenin iadesini düzenleyen maddede suçun sübûtuna etki edeceği mutlak sayılan mevcut bir delil toplanmadan düzenlenen iddianamenin iade edileceği hususu düzenlenmiştir. Bu çerçevede, güya Ergenekon Örgütünün kuruluş metinlerini yazdığını kendi ağzıyla ifade eden Tuncay Güney'in iddianamede ifadesinin yer almaması esaslı bir eksikliktir. Yani Tuncay Güney de var ise Ergenekon Örgütünün mensubu ve suçlusudur. Bu halde olsa olsa Tuncay Güney itirafçı olabilecektir. Ancak bunun içinde Tuncay Güney'in ifadesine başvurulmuş olması gerekmektedir."
- Altintas, E Baris (2008-12-03). "Ergenekon critics use Güney as ploy". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-12-02.[dead link]
- Ergin, Sedat (2008-12-02). "Tuncay Güney ve Zaman gazetesi". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-04. Unknown parameter
- Ergin, Sedat (2008-12-04). "Zaman gazetesine yanıtlar -ikinci bölüm". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-04. Unknown parameter
- Tayyar, Şamil (2008-11-12). "Aydın Doğan Ergenekon’dan nasıl sıyırdı?". Star (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Güney, Tuncay (2008-12-10). "Tuncay Güney Hürriyet'i yalanladı" (Press release) (in Turkish). FarukArslan.com. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
- "Hürriyet: Tuncay Güney iftira atıyor". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). 2008-12-12. Retrieved 2008-12-13. Unknown parameter
- Tanış, Tolga (2008-12-12). "HÜRRİYET MUHABİRİ, YENİ ŞAFAK'IN İDDİALARINA YANIT VERDİ". Medyatava (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-24.
- "Ergenekon İddianamesi". Milliyet (in Turkish). pp. 33, 34. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- Şardan, Tolga; Tahincioğlu, Gökçer (2008-07-23). "Bombanın kilidi Tekin". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-10. Unknown parameter
- Tayyar, Şamil (2008-11-19). "Açıklıyorum". Star (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-19. "Aslında Ergenekon operasyonu, 12 Haziran 2007 günü Ümraniye Çakmak Mahallesi Güngör Sokak’taki bir gecekonduya yapılan baskınla başladı. O gecekonduda 27 el bombası bulundu. Bu bombalarla aynı seriden bombaların Türkiye’nin değişik bölgelerindeki 14 ayrı olayda kullanıldığı tespit edildi."
- "Ergenekon bombaları Türkiye’yi kuşatmış". Star (in Turkish). 2008-08-09. Retrieved 2008-11-19. Unknown parameter
- For details, refer to PDF of the annex.(Turkish)
- Saymaz, Ismail (2008-07-19). "Ergenekon'da 'bomba' skandalı". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-19. "Ayrıca Ümraniye bombalarının bulunduktan 14 gün sonra ‘saklanamadığı’ gerekçesiyle imha edildiği ortaya çıkmıştı." Unknown parameter
- "Ergenekon Reina'ya göz dikmiş". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). 2008-08-23. Retrieved 2008-11-16. Unknown parameter
- "Ergenekon'da sorgulama başladı". CNN TÜRK (in Turkish). 2008-11-11. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- "'Ümraniye'deki bombalar Yıldırım'a ait'". CNN TÜRK (in Turkish). 2008-11-13. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- Erdal, Busra; Acar, Erkan (2008-11-14). "Testimony: Ümraniye bombs were Ergenekon’s". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-12-11.[dead link]
- Ocak, Serkan (2008-11-13). "Ergenekon'da sanıklar birbirini suçladı". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-11. "Polislerin adına sohbet dedikleri sorgularda bana içlerinden sadece Mahmut Öztürk ve Oktay Yıldırım tanıdığım onlarca insanın fotoğrafını gösterdiler. Bombaların Oktay Yıldırım’a ait olduğunu söylemem için telkinde bulunuldu. Onun adını söylememem halinde 39 yıl hapis yatacağım söylendi." Unknown parameter
- Şardan, Tolga; Tahincioğlu, Gökçer (2008-07-20). "Fitili ateşleyen bombalar". Milliyet. Retrieved 2008-12-16. Unknown parameter
- "Bombaların markası tanıdık". Taraf (in Turkish). 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2009-01-04.
- The information was presented under the title 'Ergenekon terör örgütü'nde kim kimdir? in Moral Haber of 8 April 2008, accessed on 14 June 2011
- Ispir, Kenan (2008-12-15). "Pandoranın kutusu bugün açılacak". Star (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-15. Unknown parameter
- Ispir, Kenan (2008-12-29). "Hasdal düğümü". Star (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-06.
- Alus, Esra (2008-12-03). "Annemin evinde silah bulundurmam hataydı". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-04. Unknown parameter
- Güneç, Sedat; Sancar, Alper (2009-01-10). "Kazdıkça cephane çıkıyor". Zaman (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- Avci, Ömür (2008-12-14). "Cephanelik gibi ev telefon ihbarıyla bulundu". Hürriyet (in Turkish). Dogan News Agency. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
- "Trabzon munitions may be linked to Ergenekon, says governor". Today's Zaman. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2008-12-15.[dead link]
- Güneç, Sedat; Sancar, Alper (2009-01-10). "Kazdıkça cephane çıkıyor". Zaman (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- Poyrazköy İddianamesi kabul edildi, Yeni Şafak of 27 January 2010; accessed on 14 June 2011
- Erzincan'da Şemdinli izi (Turkish), in Yeni Şafak of 9 March 2010, author: Kamil Maman, accessed on 14 June 2011
- Kilic, Ecevit (2008-10-19). "Dava 1 yıldan önce bitmez". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-29.
- See for instance http://tr.wikisource.org/wiki/1._Ergenekon_%C4%B0ddianamesi
- "Ergenekon indictment reopens gendarmerie major’s murder case". Today's Zaman. 2008-08-13. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
- Erdogan, Eyup (2008-07-25). "Ergenekon düğümünü o çözecek". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-15. Unknown parameter
- Trial of 86 militants accused of trying to topple Turkish prime minister opens amid court chaos Daily Mail of 20 October 2008; accessed on 17 May 2011
- "Turkey charges 86 for 'coup plot'". BBC News. 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2009-01-09. Unknown parameter
- Montgomery, Devin (2008-07-12). "Turkey arrests two ex-generals for alleged coup plot". JURIST. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- Ergenekon indictment reopens gendarmerie major’s murder case, Today's Zaman, 13 August 2008.
- Kuseyri, Murat (2008-10-04). "JİTEM Ergenekon’un askeri kanadıdır". Evrensel (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- Shocking Ergenekon Indictment Star International of 8 August 2008; accessed on 16 May 2011
- "İstihbaratçıdan şok iddia: Apo Ergenekon üyesidir". Zaman (in Turkish). 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- Jenkins, Gareth (2008-09-22). "Fact, Fantasy, And Farce As More Are Detained In Ergenekon Probe". Eurasia Daily Monitor (Jamestown Foundation) 5 (181). Retrieved 2008-11-15. "Nevertheless, the pro-AKP media continue to claim that virtually every act of terrorism in Turkey attributed to Islamist militants over the last 20 years was actually a “false flag” operation by Ergenekon, including those that occurred before the organization was even formed."
- Senior general knew about lieutenants’ Ergenekon contacts, Today's Zaman, 24 September 2008
- Publishing House DOZ, March 2007, ISBN 978-975-6876-95-4
- "The old theories about the Sabanci Center have gone mouldy!" (Press release). DHKP/C. 2008-05-18.
- TRT of 3 March 2011
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- "Ergenekon indictment may trouble Turkey". Turkish Daily News. 2008-09-03.
- Gokcer Tahincioglu, Esra Alus (2008-08-31). "‘İddianamedeki dedikodu’ya hukukçulardan itiraz". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-04. Unknown parameter
- "Judiciary gears up for close look at Ergenekon". Hurriyet Daily News. 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2009-01-08. "The code of Criminal Procedure obliges the presence of a prosecutor during all house searches, confiscations, detentions and arrests. We have seen that every search and detention has been conducted solely by police. If not conducted with a prosecutor, the evidence seized is considered illegal."
- "Turkish prosecutors file indictment on controversial Ergenekon case". Hürriyet Daily News. 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2011-05-18. "The extent of the operation had widened since the closure case against the AKP filed in March. Although the closure case and the Ergenekon case are separate legal processes, Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan had linked the two cases saying the closure case against the AKP was filed due to the government’s determination in the Ergenekon case."
- Coup-plotting allegations in Turkey: Bugged Out The Economist 6 January 2012
|Turkish Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Summary of the first indictment in English
- Summary of the second indictment in English
- The Lobby (Lobi) document in English: This booklet was found in the raids to the homes of several Ergenekon suspects. It is one of the basic documents used as evidence in the second indictment.
- The Ergenekon Analysis (Analiz) document in English: This document, part of the second indictment, compromises the goals, tactics, member profiles, and financial sources of the alleged organization.
- Necati Polat, "The Anti-Coup Trials in Turkey: What Exactly is Going On?" Mediterranean Politics (Vol. 16, No. 1, 2011), pp. 213–19
- Umit Cizre and Joshua Walker, "Conceiving the New Turkey after Ergenekon," The International Spectator (Vol. 45, No. 1, 2010), pp. 89–98
- Young Civilians and Human Rights Agenda Association, Ergenekon is Our Reality (Istanbul, 2010)
- Serdar Kaya, "The Rise and Decline of the Turkish ‘Deep State’: The Ergenekon Case," Insight Turkey (Vol. 11, No. 4, 2009), pp. 99–113
- Gareth H. Jenkins, Between Fact and Fantasy: Turkey’s Ergenekon Investigation (Washington and Stockholm: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Silk Road Studies Program, August 2009)
- The Basics of the Ergenekon Operation
- Chronology: I, II, III, IV, V. Today's Zaman.
- Network's organization chart, Today's Zaman.
- These charts were originally drawn by Tuncay Güney; see "Savcının sansürlediği şema 236. klasörde sansürsüz". Gazeteport (in Turkish). 2008-08-16. Unknown parameter
|section=ignored (help) They are also included in the indictment's annex: folder 236, p.196-7
- Turkey -- Guide to Ergenekon An Open Source Center Report of 19 March 2010
- Politics of Principles or Principles of Politics: An Evaluation on Ergenekon Investigation by Taptuk Emre Erkoc in Global Faultlines on 30 March 2011