Foner at his New York City office in September 2009.
February 7, 1943 |
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Naomi Foner Gyllenhaal (divorced)
Lynn Garafola (present; 1 child)
Eric Foner (born February 7, 1943) is an American historian. On the faculty of the Department of History at Columbia University since 1982, he writes extensively on political history, the history of freedom, the early history of the Republican Party, African American biography, Reconstruction, and historiography. Foner is the leading contemporary historian of the post-Civil War Reconstruction period, having written Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, winner of many prizes for history writing, and more than ten other books on the topic. In 2011, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, Foner's most recent book, was selected as the recipient of the Pulitzer Prize, Lincoln Prize and the Bancroft Prize. Foner also won the Bancroft in 1989 for his book Reconstruction.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Position on teaching
- 5 Works by Foner
- 6 References
- 7 External links
- 8 Further reading
Foner was born in New York City, New York, the son of Liza (née Kraitz), a high school art teacher, and historian Jack D. Foner, who actively supported the Spanish Republic against fascism during the Spanish Civil War, the trade union movement, and the campaign for civil rights for African Americans. In 1981, Jack Foner received an apology from the New York City Board of Higher Education for an "egregious violation of academic freedom" in 1941 that had resulted in his blacklisting for thirty years. Jon Wiener, professor of history at the University of California, Irvine, wrote that Eric Foner describes his father as his "first great teacher," and recalls how, "deprived of his livelihood while I was growing up, he supported our family as a freelance lecturer... . Listening to his lectures, I came to appreciate how present concerns can be illuminated by the study of the past—how the repression of the McCarthy era recalled the days of the Alien and Sedition Acts, the civil rights movement needed to be viewed in light of the great struggles of Black and White abolitionists, and in the brutal suppression of the Philippine insurrection at the turn of the century could be found the antecedents of American intervention in Vietnam. I also imbibed a way of thinking about the past in which visionaries and underdogs—Tom Paine, Wendell Phillips, Eugene V. Debs, and W. E. B. Du Bois—were as central to the historical drama as presidents and captains of industry, and how a commitment to social justice could infuse one's attitudes towards the past."
Foner went to Columbia University for his B.A., where he was majoring in physics until he took a year-long seminar with James P. Shenton on the Civil War and Reconstruction his junior year. "It probably determined that most of my career has been focused on that period," he recalled years later. A year later, in 1963, he graduated summa cum laude as a history major. He then went to Oxford as a Kellett Fellow; he received a B.A. from Oriel College in 1965. He returned to Columbia for his Ph.D, where he worked under Richard Hofstadter; he finished in 1969.
Appointed the DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University, Foner specializes in nineteenth century American history, the American Civil War, slavery, and Reconstruction. He served as president of the Organization of American Historians in (1993–94), and of the American Historical Association (2000).
From 1973-1982, he served as a Professor in the Department of History at City College and Graduate Center at City University of New York. In 1976-1977, he was a visiting professor of American History at Princeton University. In 1980 he was Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions at the University of Cambridge.
Foner serves on the editorial boards of Past and Present and The Nation. He has written for The New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, London Review of Books, and other publications. In addition, he has spoken about history on television and radio, including Charlie Rose, Book Notes, and All Things Considered, and appeared in historical documentaries on PBS and The History Channel. Foner also contributed an essay and conversation with John Sayles in Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies, published by the Society of American Historians in 1995. He was the historian in Freedom: A History of US on PBS in 2003.
Writing on the Reconstruction Era
Foner has long been considered a leading authority on the Reconstruction Era of American history. In a seminal essay in American Heritage in October, 1982, later reprinted in Reviews in American History, Foner wrote,
In the past twenty years, no period of American history has been the subject of a more thoroughgoing reevaluation than Reconstruction—the violent, dramatic, and still controversial era following the Civil War. Race relations, politics, social life, and economic change during Reconstruction have all been reinterpreted in the light of changed attitudes toward the place of blacks within American society. If historians have not yet forged a fully satisfying portrait of Reconstruction as a whole, the traditional interpretation that dominated historical writing for much of this century has irrevocably been laid to rest.
That year, he gave the Fleming lectures in southern history, which were later published as Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy, ISBN 0807132896.
In 1988, Foner published his definitive, 690-page book, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, ISBN 0060158514. It won the Bancroft Prize, the Francis Parkman Prize, the Los Angeles Times Book Award, the Avery O. Craven Prize, and the Lionel Trilling Prize.
"Foner has established himself as the leading authority on the Reconstruction period," wrote historian Michael Perman in reviewing Reconstruction. "This book is not simply a distillation of the secondary literature; it is a masterly account - broad in scope as well as rich in detail and insight.
Since then, Foner has continued to lecture widely on Reconstruction and published several additional books including A Short History of Reconstruction, 1863-1877 (1990, ISBN 0060964316) and America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War (1995, ISBN 0060553464).
In a 2009 essay "If Lincoln Hadn’t Died..." for American Heritage, Foner pondered whether Reconstruction might have turned out differently. "It is wrong to think that, during the Civil War, Lincoln embraced a single 'plan' of Reconstruction," he wrote. "Lincoln had always been willing to work closely with all factions of his party, including the Radicals on numerous occasions. I think it is quite plausible to imagine Lincoln and Congress agreeing to a Reconstruction policy encompassing basic civil rights for blacks (as was enacted in 1866) plus limited black suffrage, along the lines he proposed just before his death."
Secession and the Soviet Union
As a visiting professor in Moscow Foner compared secessionist forces in the USSR with the secession movement in the U.S. in the 1860s. In an article in the February 11th, 1991 edition of The Nation Foner addresses the proposed secession of the Baltic states from the Soviet Union. These states claimed “the right to secede in part because they were annexed in 1940 against the wishes of their citizens after more than two decades of independence”.
Foner takes note of political scientist Ronald Suny's opinion that the current crisis (in 1990) that the Soviet Union was facing with respect to these states “reflect[ed] the failure of Soviet nationality policy” which served to “strengthen nationalism in the republics, while the fate of minorities within those political units became extremely problematic.”
Foner wrote of potential problems with the separatist movements by these states:
Every Soviet republic now demanding independence has significant populations of other ethnic groups. And respect for minority rights has never been a prominent feature of nationalist movements. When I visited Estonia last year a local nationalist told me that the first step after independence would be to expel ‘illegal aliens’ -- by which he meant any non-Estonian who had come to live in the region since 1940.
Foner asked the question, “What is the proper unit for self-determination? What happens to residents who want to remain part of the larger unit.” Drawing an analogy from the American Civil War, Foner noted that West Virginia successfully separated from Virginia and returned to the Union while the Confederate States of America “violently suppress[ed] East Tennessee’s desire to remain within the Union” while Texas treated pro-Union Germans with “extreme brutality”. While visiting in Tbilisi, Foner was told that “autonomous regions of non-Georgians within the republic” would not be allowed to secede.
With Olivia Mahoney, chief curator at the Chicago History Museum Foner curated two prize-winning exhibitions on American history: A House Divided: America in the Age of Lincoln, which opened at the Chicago History Museum in 1990, and America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War, a traveling exhibit that opened at the Virginia Historical Society in 1995. He revised the presentation of American history at the Hall of Presidents at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom, and Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln at Disneyland, and has served as consultant to several National Park Service historical sites and historical museums.
Foner served as an expert witness for the University of Michigan's defense of affirmative action in its undergraduate and law school admissions (Gratz v. Bollinger and Grutter v. Bollinger) considered by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2003.
Awards and Honors
In 1989, Foner won the Avery O. Craven Award from the Organization of American Historians. In 1991, Foner won the Great Teacher Award from the Society of Columbia Graduates. In 1995, he was named Scholar of the Year by the New York Council for the Humanities. He is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the British Academy and holds an honorary doctorate from Iona College. He has taught at Cambridge University as Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions, at Oxford University as Harmsworth Professor of American History, where he is also an honorary fellow of the Rothermere American Institute, and at Moscow State University as Fulbright Professor. In 2007, the alumni of Columbia College voted to give him the John Jay Award for Distinguished Professional Achievement. In 2011, his new book, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery won the Pulitzer Prize for history, the Bancroft Prize and the Lincoln Prize.
Journalist Nat Hentoff called his Story of American Freedom "an indispensable book that should be read in every school in the land." "Eric Foner is one of the most prolific, creative, and influential American historians of the past 20 years," according to a write-up in the Washington Post. His work is "brilliant, important" a reviewer wrote in the Los Angeles Times.
In a review of The Story of American Freedom in the New York Review of Books, Theodore Draper wrote, "If the story of American freedom is told largely from the perspective of blacks and women, especially the former, it is not going to be a pretty tale. Yet most Americans thought of themselves not only as free but as the freest people in the world." John Patrick Diggins of the City University of New York wrote that Foner's Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, was a "magisterial" and "moving" narrative, but compared Foner's "unforgiving" view of America for its racist past to his notably different views on the fall of communism and Soviet history.
Some conservatives have attacked Foner. David Horowitz labeled as "anti-American" a Columbia University teach-in that Foner helped organize in 2003; Daniel Pipes named Foner among the "Profs who hate America" (for the historian's opposition to the Iraq War).
Foner is married to Lynn Garafola, professor of dance at Barnard College and dance critic, historian, and curator. They have one daughter, who is a graduate student at Columbia University and former member of the Norwegian National Ballet. He had been previously married to screenwriter Naomi Foner Gyllenhaal.
Position on teaching
Foner has frequently explored teaching moments that historians can use. "Like all momentous events, September 11 is a remarkable teaching opportunity. But only if we use it to open rather than to close debate. Critical intellectual analysis is our responsibility—to ourselves and to our students." - "Rethinking American History in a Post-9/11 World" History News Network
"[S]uccessful teaching rests both on a genuine and selfless concern for students and on the ability to convey to them a love of history." - Eric Foner, Who Owns History? (Farrar, Straus & Giroux: 2002), page 7.
"In a global age, the forever-unfinished story of American freedom must become a conversation with the entire world, not a complacent monologue with ourselves." - "American Freedom in a Global Age" Presidential Address to the American Historical Association annual meeting January 2001.
"Events are only inevitable after they happen." -Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World
Works by Foner
- Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995 . ISBN 0-19-509497-2. Reissued with a new preface.
- America's Black Past: A Reader in Afro-American History. New York: Harper & Row. 1970.,editor
- Nat Turner. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 1971. ISBN 0-13-933143-3., editor
- Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. New York: Oxford University Press. 1976. ISBN 0-19-501986-5.
- Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press. 1980. ISBN 0-19-502781-7.
- Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. 1983. ISBN 0-8071-1118-X.
- Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row. 1988. ISBN 0-06-015851-4. Political history; and winner, in 1989, of the Bancroft Prize, the Francis Parkman Prize, the Los Angeles Times Book Award, the Avery O. Craven Prize, and the Lionel Trilling Prize.
- A Short History of Reconstruction, 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row. 1990. ISBN 0-06-096431-6. An abridgement of Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution.
- A House Divided: America in the Age of Lincoln. with Olivia Mahoney. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society. 1990. ISBN 0-393-02755-4.
- The Reader's Companion to American History. ed. with John A. Garraty. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. 1991. ISBN 0-395-51372-3., editor
- The Tocsin of Freedom: The Black Leadership of Radical Reconstruction. Gettysburg, Pa.: Gettysburg College. 1992.
- Slavery and Freedom in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press. 1994. ISBN 0-19-952266-9.
- America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War. with Olivia Mahoney. New York: HarperPerennial. 1995. ISBN 0-06-055346-4.
- Freedom's Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders During Reconstruction (rev. ed. ed.). Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. 1996. ISBN 0-8071-2082-0.
- The New American History (rev. ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 1997. ISBN 1-56639-551-8., editor
- The Story of American Freedom. New York: W.W. Norton. 1998. ISBN 0-393-04665-6.
- Who Owns History?: Rethinking the Past in a Changing World. New York: Hill and Wang. 2002. ISBN 0-8090-9704-4.
- Give Me Liberty!: An American History. New York: W.W. Norton. 2004. ISBN 0-393-97872-9. A survey of United States history, published with companion volumes of documents,
- Voices of Freedom: A Documentary History, ISBN 0-393-92503-X (vol. 1), and ISBN 0-393-92504-8 (vol. 2).
- Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. New York: Knopf. 2005. ISBN 0-375-40259-4.
- Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and his World. New York: W.W. Norton. 2008. ISBN 0-393-06756-4.
- The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York: W.W. Norton. 2010.
Some of his books have been translated into Portuguese, Italian, and Chinese.
- "Radical Individualism in America: Revolution to Civil War," Literature of Liberty, vol. 1 no. 3, July/September 1978 pp 1-31 online
- "The New View of Reconstruction", American Heritage", October/November 1983, Volume 34, Issue 6.
- "The South’s Inner Civil War", American Heritage", March 1989, Volume 40, Issue 2
- "Rebel Yell" The Nation - January 27, 2000
- "Changing History" The Nation September 5, 2002
- "The Century, A Nation's Eye View" The Nation December 10, 2002
- "Not All Freedom Is Made In America" The Nation April 13, 2003
- "Dare Call It Treason" The Nation - June 2, 2003
- "Diversity Over Justice" The Nation - June 26, 2003
- "Rethinking American History in a Post-9/11 World" History News Network—September 6, 2004
- "He's the Worst Ever", Dec. 3, 2006, The Washington Post column on George W. Bush
- "If Lincoln Hadn’t Died...," American Heritage", Winter 2009, Volume 58, Issue 6.
- "Expert Report of Eric Foner" from Gratz, et al. v. Bollinger, et al.
- Foner, Eric (October 10, 2011). "The Civil War in 'Postracial' America". The Nation. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
- "The Emancipation of Abe Lincoln", January 1, 2013, The New York Times
- (Additional articles available at EricFoner.com)
- Perman, Michael. "Eric Foner's Reconstruction: A Finished Revolution". Reviews in American History, Vol. 17, No. 1. (Mar., 1989), pp. 73-78.
- "Prestigious Lincoln Prize goes to Eric Foner". The Washington Post.
- "Historian Foner among 3 winners of Bancroft Prize". Sify.com. 2011-03-28. Retrieved 2013-06-07.
- Foner's presidential speech to the American Historical Association, titled "Freedom in a Global Age"
- "Jack D. Foner, Historian and Pioneer in Black Studies, Dies at 88," by William H. Honan
- Jon Wiener, "In Memoriam: Jack D. Foner." Perspectives (April 2000) - American Historical Association
- Eric Watkin, "Professor James P. Shenton '49: History's Happy Warrior," Columbia College Today 22:3 (Summer 1996)
- Foner, Eric, "The New View Of Reconstruction," American Heritage, October/November 1983, Volume 34, Issue 6.
- The Nation (1991) Volume 252 - Page 164 Snippet view
- [dead link]
- "New York Council for the Humanities". Nyhumanities.org. Retrieved 2013-06-07.
- Mansart, Tom (2000). "Books". The New Crisis.
- "The Story of American Freedom: Eric Foner: 9780393319620: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2013-06-07.
- "Freedom and Its Discontents by Theodore H. Draper | The New York Review of Books". Nybooks.com. 1999-09-23. Retrieved 2013-06-07.
- 2002 in The National Interest, Inc.
- Barnard College Newscenter
- Eric Foner
- EricFoner.com - Professor Foner's homepage
- Eric Foner lecture "Who Owns History?" from the 2009 Key West Literary Seminar (audio recording)
- Books written by Eric Foner or edited or introduced by him
- American Historical Association - Bibliography of Foner's Books
- Fathom Source for Online Learning Foner discusses influential history books he has read.
- Excerpt from Eric Foner essay on the John Sayles film, Matewan in the book Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies edited by historian Mark C. Carnes
- Who Owns History? - Publisher's page of Foner's book by the same title.
- VIDEO: "The Story of American Freedom: 1776-2005"- MIT SPURS/Humphrey Program sponsored lecture by Eric Foner from the series "Myths About America."
- The Left's Lion: Eric Foner's History - by Ronald Radosh
- Expert report by Eric Foner for University of Michigan Affirmative Action cases
- A film clip "The Open Mind - A Historian's 'Story of American Freedom,' Part I (1999)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- A film clip "The Open Mind - A Historian's 'Story of American Freedom,' Part II (1999)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- Booknotes interview with Foner on The Story of American Freedom, November 15, 1998.
- Diggins, John Patrick. "Fate and freedom in history: the two worlds of Eric Foner," The National Interest, Fall, 2002 Issue 69, pp 79–90 online
- Snowman, Daniel, "Eric Foner", History Today Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2000, pp. 26–27 .