Eric Alan Hanushek (born, 1943) is a graduate of the United States Air Force Academy, who served in the Air Force from 1965 to 1974 and holds a PhD in economics from MIT. Dr. Hanushek has held academic teaching positions at the U.S. Air Force Academy, the University of Rochester, and Yale University. He is presently a Paul and Jean Hanna Senior Fellow at the conservative Hoover Institution, an American public policy think tank located at Stanford University in California, and has written prolifically on the economics of education.
Hanushek is the author of numerous complex and highly controversial statistical analyses on the topics of class size reduction, high stakes accountability, and value-added assessments of teacher quality. He is known for his controversial assertion that, in his words, "money doesn't matter"—i.e, that in his opinion the amount of money spent in an a given American school district is not "systematically related" to the amount of student learning in that district. He also contends that the quality of education is causally related to economic growth. Hanushek is a frequent contributor to the opinion pages of the Wall Street Journal.
- 1 As Expert Witness
- 2 Personal Life
- 3 Research
- 3.1 Controversies over the relationship between resources and class size on academic performance
- 3.2 Effect of teacher and administrator quality on learning gains
- 3.3 Effects of Peers and School Racial Composition
- 3.4 Economic Impact of Education
- 3.5 Accountability
- 3.6 Institutional Design
- 3.7 Ability Tracking and Local Control
- 4 Education in Developing Countries
- 5 Activities and Appointments
- 6 The Texas Schools Project
- 7 Publications
- 8 Criticism
- 9 References
- 10 External links
As Expert Witness
Since the early 1970s, when plaintiffs have filed lawsuits seeking to overthrow school funding based on local property taxes as inequitable, Dr. Hanushek has been called to testify as an expert witness in defense of the state. He testifies that the problem with schools is not lack of funds but rather inefficiency and asserts that increasing (or seeking to equalize) appropriations is wasteful, since he maintains his analyses show that more funding produces only "inconsistent" outcomes. Instead of seeking to equalize funding among districts, Hanushek recommends introducing value-added testing testing (to identify and fire underperforming teachers) and vouchers and charter schools (to introduce market-based parental "choice"). He labels those who oppose these measures as wanting to protect "special interests" and "sacred cows" and accuses them of wanting to maintain "the status quo". In particular, Hanushek identifies teachers' unions among the "entrenched" or "special interests" that oppose the measures he recommends. The 20 school funding trials at which Hanushek has testified over the years include Serrano v. Priest (1973) in California, Somerset County Board of Education v Hornbeck in Maryland (1980), and Abbott v. Burke (1987) in New Jersey. His amicus brief was cited in the the 2009 five-to-four U.S. Supreme Court decision of Horne v. Flores, which citing Hanushek and Lindseth, held, in a majority opinion written by Justice Alito that in evaluating the actions of the state, attention should focus on student "outcomes" as measured by test scores rather than on inequalities of spending and other "inputs" to schools.
In 2011 Dr. Hanushek was the central expert witness for the defense in the highly-publicized case of Lobato vs. State of Colorado, named for Taylor Lobato, who in 2005 was a middle-school student when her parents filed a suit that claimed her San Luis Valley school district was underfunded compared to wealthier districts. In that case, Denver District Judge Sheila Rappaport issued a 189-page decision rejecting the state's arguments, writing that: “Dr. Hanushek’s analysis that there is not much relationship in Colorado between spending and achievement contradicts testimony and documentary evidence from dozens of well-respected educators in the State, defies logic, and is statistically flawed.”
Hanushek is married to Margaret (Macke) Raymond, director of the Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO) at Stanford University. CREDO has issued numerous studies favorable to the establishment of charter schools in the United States.
Hanushek's Ph.D. thesis introduced a model that he termed an “educational production function” into the analysis of education issues. This model postulated a clear distinction between inputs – including family, neighborhood, and peer factors – of education and outcomes – typically measured by student achievement, continuation in school, or ultimately income and employment. According to Hanushek, when placed in the common value-added form, his model identifies the impact of added resources, given prior achievement and other non-school factors.
Controversies over the relationship between resources and class size on academic performance
Hanushek's controversial 1986 paper, "The Economics of Schooling", reported finding an inconsistent relationship between school resources and student outcomes. It provoked numerous responses. One critic, Larry Hedges, used meta-analysis of Hanushek's own figures to show that $100 spent per pupil (1989 dollars) in fact raised student achievement by one-fifth of a standard deviation. This led Hanushek to concede that "Money might matter somewhere." Currently Hanushek maintains that how money is spent is more important than how much money is spent.
Hanushek's other claim, that class size has no effect on educational performance is disputed by Alan Krueger, among others. The debate is summed up in Lawrence Mishel and Richard Rothstein (eds.) The class size debate (Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 2002).
Effect of teacher and administrator quality on learning gains
Hanushek asserts that that teacher quality is by far the most important factor in raising student achievement as measured by test scores; and, moreover, according to him, teacher quality is not closely related to such factors as teacher salaries, educational background, or experience. Test scores alone ought to be the metric by which the quality of teachers should be measured, Hanushek contends.
In contrast to James Coleman, who in the 1960s had suggested that schools and teachers had little effect on student performance, Hanushek's 1992 studies of inner-city children showed that disadvantaged pupils taught by good teachers gained one-and one-half years of learning, as opposed to only six months when taught by poor teachers – that is, a difference of a full school year. His subsequent studies reinforced these conclusions, which he felt had highly important policy implications.
Hanushek's claims resulted his formulation of the highly controversial policy of "value-added assessment" method of teacher effectiveness, which uses a formula of student achievement information (as measured by pupil scores) to evaluate teacher performance with a view to firing those who don't produce high scoring pupils. When this was tried out in Los Angeles in 2010, the value added rankings for more than 6,000 teachers were published in the Los Angeles Times, resulting in complaints by teachers and their unions that they were being subjected to public shaming. The New York Times also subsequently published such measures for their local teachers.
In addition to measuring teachers, Hanushek has also applied his outcome-based approach to measuring the effectiveness of school principals, whom he states also greatly impact student achievement – though their role in selecting and retaining good teachers
Effects of Peers and School Racial Composition
Together with co-authors John Kain and Steven Rivkin, Hanushek has studied the influence of peer ability on achievement in elementary classrooms in Texas, concluding that the achievement level of peers exerts a positive influence whose impact is roughly constant across the achievement distribution. In contrast, the variance in achievement appears to have no systematic inﬂuence, leading them to conclude that ability grouping per se has no separate impact.
Hanushek et al. also found that achievement levels of black students (but not of white or hispanic students) appeared to be systematically lowered in the presence of large concentrations of other black students in their school. The found this effect to be especially pronounced among the highest-achieving black students. These results, in their view, underscore the importance of school integration.
Economic Impact of Education
Hanushek contends that in both individuals and nations, cognitive skills are causally related to economic outcomes such that variations in growth rates across countries can be largely explained by consideration of the role of cognitive skills. Previous studies have measured human capital through years of schooling attained by the labor force, Hanushek, however, believes that cognitive skills as measured by international test scores, give a more accurate picture in industrialized and developing countries alike.
Differences in economic growth among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries closely reflect differences in mathematics and science achievement. Differences in achievement also appear to explain completely the slow growth of Latin America.
At the individual level, differences in cognitive skills across countries receive varying rewards in the labor market. The U.S. appears to reward skills the most, while Poland, Sweden, and the Czech Republic provide the least return among selected countries.
Linking teacher value-added measurement with research on the economic impact of differences in achievement both for individual earnings and for economic growth, Hanushek estimates that the impact of differences in teacher quality is significant. and the least effective teachers in U.S. schools have an especially large impact. He estimates that replacing the least effective 5-8 percent of teachers with an average teacher would increase the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 75 to 110 trillion dollars in present value.
Hanushek forcefully advocates instituting state and federal accountability systems to improve student achievement, even while acknowledging that existing accountability systems have also been shown to introduce some unwanted outcomes.
In 2011, a United States National Research Council panel issued a report that concluded that empirical results do not support the use of such test-based accountability policies such as the No Child Left Behind Act and high school exit exams. Such incentives, which now have been in place for many years, the authors wrote, at best have succeeded in raising scores only minutely in the earliest grades and then only in math. The the panel also reported that high school exit exams serve only to increase the dropout rate and have no effect on scores. Hanushek responded in the pages of Education Next (published by the Hoover Institute), accusing the panel of "bias" and calling its evidence of poor or non-existent educational improvement "weak". Since then arguments about test-based incentives and school exit exams has intensified. The re-authorization of the No Child Left Behind Act and plans for expansion of high school exit examinations now hinge on outcome of these debates.
The operations of schools within are shaped and affected by the structure of each country's schooling, making it difficult to assess the significance of the educational environment.Together with Ludger Woessmann of the University of Munich and other co-authors, Hanushek has developed comparative data-based approaches for identifying the impact of differing educational systems.
Ability Tracking and Local Control
Hanushek is on record as an opposing ability tracking on the grounds that research shows that early tracking increases educational inequality and tends to reduce average performance..
Countries also differ in how much local decision making they permit in their schools. Using a method of their own devising, Hanushek, Woessmann, and Susanne Link used international assessment data from the Programme for International Student Assessment, or PISA, to compare changes in student achievement within individual countries to changes in local autonomy over various educational decisions. They concluded that in developed countries, local decision making impacts positively on student performance. This was also true where countries had external examinations for students. In less developed countries, however, particularly where there was no monitoring of schools through external examinations, local decision making was harmful. They caution, however, that it might not be valid to generalize such findings from developed countries to developing countries.
Hanushek also looked at the effects of vocational education versus general education. Some analyses suggests that emphasis of specific skills through vocational schooling can result in slower economic growth, since workers with very specific training, might be able to find work more easily when young but may be disadvantaged later when new technologies make their skills obsolete. Hanushek, Woessmann, and Lei Zhang compared the life-cycle employment and earnings patterns of those with vocational and general education across countries and found that workers in the most vocation-intensive countries (“apprenticeship countries”) did suffer later in their careers and tended to leave the labor force noticeably earlier than workers with general training.
Education in Developing Countries
Development agencies such as the World Bank and UNESCO have traditionally emphasized expanding access through such initiatives as Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals . Hanushek and Woessmann, however, caution that merely improving access can do little, unless students' cognitive skills are raised, which they say is not happening in developing countries. The also linked poor quality schools to high dropout rates.
Hanushek's work for the World Bank showed that in developing countries, as in the U.S., policies intended to improve educational resources have not been consistently productive, even though in developing countries they have noticeably lower levels of inputs. In the poorest areas of Brazil, for example, Hanushek and Ralph Harbison contended that large differences among schools and teachers were not systematically related to teacher education, teacher experience, and most other measures of general resources of schools. Hanushek has advocated targets policies, such as providing text books, which can lead to more efficient schooling by cutting down on grade repetition.
Activities and Appointments
Hanushek is a member of the Hoover Institution's Koret Task Force on K-12 Education, whose members, including Caroline M. Hoxby and Paul E. Peterson, support charter schools and privatization. Hanushek was a presidential appointee to the Board of Directors of the National Board for Education Sciences, one of four branches of the the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. In 2011, he served on the Equity and Excellence Commission of the U.S. Department of Education. He holds the title of research professor at the Ifo Institute for Economic Research (University of Munich) and has also served as deputy director of the Congressional Budget Office, staff Economist at the Council of Economic Advisers, and senior economist for the Cost of Living Council.
The Texas Schools Project
As chairman of the Executive Committee for the Texas Schools Project at the University of Texas at Dallas, Hanushek worked with John F. Kain to develop the Texas Schools Project at the The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD). This project used administrative data from schools to compile databases to permit the analysis of the effects of teacher labor markets and the impacts of special education, student mobility, school choice, and charter schools. The Texas Schools Project was the model for similar administrative databases in Florida, North Carolina, and New York.
Hanushek's 2009 book with Alfred Lindseth, Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America's Public Schools (Princeton University Press), makes the case that increasing money for public schools produces "inconsistent" results and advocates performance-based funding to improve school outcomes.
Other books Hanushek has written or edited include: Courting Failure: How School Finance Lawsuits Exploit Judges' Good Intentions And Harm Our Children (Education Next Books) (Hoover Institution Press, 2006); Handbook of the Economics of Education (Handbooks in Economics), a three-volume series, which Hanushek edited with Stephen J. Machin, F. Welsh, and Ludger Woessmann (North Holland Press, 2006, 2010, and 2011); The Economics of Schooling and School Quality (International Library of Critical Writings in Economics) (Edward Elgar, 2003); Improving America’s Schools: The Role of Incentives (National National Academies Press, 1996), co-written with with Dale W. Jorgenson; Making Schools Work: Improving Performance and Controlling Costs (Brookings Institution Press, 1996); Educational Performance of the Poor: Lessons from Rural Northeast Brazil (A World Bank Publication) (Oxford University Press, USA,1992) co-written with H. Ralph Harbison; and Education and Education and Race: An Analysis of the Educational Production Process (Lexington Books, 1972).
Hanushek's most recent book, Endangering Prosperity: A Global View of the American School (Brookings Institution Press, 2013), written with Hoover Institute colleague Paul E. Peterson and Ludger Woessmann of the University of Munich, has a foreword by former President of Harvard, Lawrence Summers. It makes the case that poor or average scores on the international Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test will cause the U.S. A. it to lose its economic pre-eminence over other nations.
Princeton University economist Jesse M. Rothstein has described the use of value-added measurement for evaluating teacher performance, recommended by Hanushek as early as 1971, as conceptually deeply flawed, since value-added scores assume that students are randomly assigned to teachers, whereas in the real world it is almost never the case for students to be randomly assigned to teachers or to schools. "Non-random assignment of students to teachers can bias value-added estimates of teachers’ causal effects", Rothstein writes.
A detailed summary of the various objections and critiques of Hanushek's statistical methodology in reaching his conclusions about the ineffectiveness of money in improving academic performance may be found in Bruce D. Baker's "Revisiting that Age-Old Question: Does Money Matter in Education?", published in 2012 by The Albert Shanker Institute.
- Lindsay, Leon (June 2, 1983). "Stanford's conservative think tank is under fire". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
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- "Think tank's Hoover Tower turns 50". Daily News of Los Angeles. July 19, 1991. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Eric Hanushek, "Throwing money at schools," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 1, no. 1 (Fall 1981); see also Dana Goldstein, "What Teachers Want", The Nation, May 14, 2012.
- Kate Alexander, "School Finance Trial: Expert: More money might not fix Texas schools", Austin American Statesman, January 1, 2013.
- See Eric Hanushek and Alfred Lindseth, Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America's Public Schools (Princeton University Press, 2009), p. 270 and passim.
- Todd Engdahl "Ruling a clean sweep for Lobato Plaintiffs", EdNews Colorado, December 12, 2011. See also: Tim Hoover, "Denver judge's ruling on school funding levels blisters state's witnesses", Denver Post, December 1, 2011.
- Eric A. Hanushek, The Education of Negroes and Whites, PhD. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1968; see also the expanded version, Eric A. Hanushek, Education and Race: An Analysis of the Educational Production Process (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1972).
- Eric A. Hanushek, "Conceptual and empirical issues in the estimation of educational production functions," Journal of Human Resources 14(3), Summer 1979: 351-388.
- Eric A. Hanushek, "The economics of schooling," Journal of Economic Literature, 49(3), September 1986. pp. 1141-1177
- See, for example, Gary Burtless (ed.), Does money matter? The effect of school resources on student achievement and adult success (Washington, DC: Brookings, 1996).
- Larry V. Hedges, Richard D. Laine, and Rob Greenwald, "Does money matter? A meta-analysis of studies of the effects of differential school inputs on student outcomes," Educational Researcher 23(3), April1994: 5-14. See also: Morton Hunt, "How science takes stock: the story of meta-analysis" 1997, The Russell Sage Foundation, New York
- Eric A. Hanushek, "Money might matter somewhere: A response to Hedges, Laine, and Greenwald," Educational Researcher 23(4), May 1994: 5-8.
- Eric A. Hanushek, "The failure of input-based schooling policies," Economic Journal, 113, February 2003, pp. F64-F98
- Alan B. Krueger, "Understanding the magnitude and effect of class size on student achievement" in The Class Size Debate, edited by Lawrence Mishel and Richard Rothstein (Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 2002): 7-35; Eric A. Hanushek, "Evidence, politics, and the class size debate" in The Class Size Debate, edited by Lawrence Mishel and Richard Rothstein (Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 2002): 37-65.
- Eric A. Hanushek, "Teacher Characteristics and Gains in Student Achievement: Estimation Using Micro-Data," American Economic Review, 61(2), May 1971, pp. 280-288; Eric A. Hanushek, "The Trade-off Between Child Quantity and Quality," Journal of Political Economy, 100(1), February 1992, pp. 84-117; Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. Hanushek, and John F. Kain, “Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement,” Econometrica 73(2), March 2005, pp. 417-458.
- James S. Coleman et al., Equality of Educational Opportunity (Washington, DC, 1966)
- Eric A. Hanushek, "The Trade-off Between Child Quantity and Quality," Journal of Political Economy, 100 :1 (February 1992): 84-117.
- Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin, "The distribution of teacher quality and implications for policy," Annual Review of Economics 4 (2012): 7.1-7.27
- Jason Felch, Jason Song, and Doug Smith, "Grading the teachers: Who's teaching L.A.'s kids?" Los Angeles Times, August 14, 2010.
- Gregory F. Branch, Eric A. Hanushek, and Steven G. Rivkin, "School Leaders Matter: Measuring the impact of effective principals," Education Next 13(1), Winter 2013.
- Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Kain, Jacob M. Markman, and Steven G. Rivkin, "Does peer ability affect student achievement?" Journal of Applied Econometrics 18(5), September/October 2003: 527-544.
- Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Kain, and Steve G. Rivkin, "New evidence about Brown v. Board of Education: The complex effects of school racial composition on achievement," Journal of Labor Economics 27(3), July 2009: 349-383.
- Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin, "Harming the best: How schools affect the black-white achievement gap." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management’’ 28(3), Summer 2009: 366-393.
- Eric A. Hanushek and Dennis Kimko, "Schooling, Labor Force Quality, and the Growth of Nations," American Economic Review, 90(5), December 2000, pp. 1184-1208; Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann,"The Role of Cognitive Skills in Economic Development" , Journal of Economic Literature 46(3), September 2008:pp. 607-668
- Mark Bils and Peter J. Klenow, "Does schooling cause growth?" American Economic Review 90(5), December 2000: 1160-1183.
- Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann, "Do better schools lead to more growth? Cognitive skills, economic outcomes, and causation," Journal of Economic Growth, 17(4), December 2012: 267-321.
- Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann, "How much do educational outcomes matter in OECD countries?" Economic Policy 26(67), July 2011: 427-491.
- Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann, "Schooling, Educational Achievement, and the Latin American Growth Puzzle," Journal of Economic Development 99(2), November 2012: 497-512.
- Eric A. Hanushek and Lei Zhang, "Quality-consistent estimates of international schooling and skill gradients." Journal of Human Capital 3(2), Summer 2009: 107-143.
- Eric A. Hanushek, "Valuing Teachers," Education Next, 11(3), Summer 2011.
- Eric A. Hanushek and Margaret E. Raymond, "Does school accountability lead to improved student performance?" Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 24(2), Spring 2005: 297-327
- David Figlio and Susanna Loeb,"School accountability" In Handbook of the Economics of Education, Vol. 3, edited by Eric A. Hanushek, Stephen Machin, and Ludger Woessmann (Amsterdam: North Holland, 2011): 383-421.
- Michael Hout and Stuart W. Elliott (eds.), Incentives and test-based accountability in education (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2011.
- Eric A. Hanushek, "Grinding the anti-testing ax: More bias than evidence behind NRC panel's conclusions", Education Next 12:2 (Spring 2012): 49-55.
- John Robert Warren and Eric Grodsky, "No Axe to Grind: A Response to Hanushek," Educational Policy 26: 3 (May 2012: 352-359) and Eric A. Hanushek, "A flawed analysis of unrepresentative state achievement data," Educational Policy 26: 3 (May 2012): 360-68.
- Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann, "The economics of international differences in educational achievement" in Handbook of the Economics of Education, Vol. 3, edited by Eric A. Hanushek, Stephen Machin, and Ludger Woessmann (Amsterdam: North Holland, 2011): 89-200.
- Julian R. Betts, "The Economics of Tracking in Education" in Handbook of the Economics of Education, edited by Stephen Machin Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann (Amsterdam: North Holland, 2011): 341-381. Hanushek and Woessmann identify the impact of systemic tracking by comparing differences in student outcomes between primary and secondary schools across tracked and non-tracked systems. See" Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann, "Does educational tracking affect performance and inequality? Differences-in-differences evidence across countries." Economic Journal 116( 510), March 2006: C63-C76.
- Eric A. Hanushek, Susanne Link, and Ludger Woessmann, "Does school autonomy make sense everywhere? Panel estimates from PISA." Journal of Development Economics forthcoming.
- Dirk Krueger and Krishna B. Kumar, "US-Europe differences in technology-driven growth: quantifying the role of education," Journal of Monetary Economics 51(1), January2004: 161-190.
- Eric A. Hanushek, Ludger Woessmann, and Lei Zhang, "General Education, Vocational Education, and Labor-Market Outcomes over the Life-Cycle," NBER Working Paper 17504. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research (October 2011).
- Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann, Education quality and economic growth (Washington: World Bank, 2007).
- Eric A. Hanushek, Victor Lavy, and Kohtaro Hitomi, "Do students care about school quality? Determinants of dropout behavior in developing countries," Journal of Human Capital 1(2), Spring 2008: 69-105.
- Eric A. Hanushek, "Interpreting recent research on schooling in developing countries," World Bank Research Observer 10(2), August 1995: 227-246.
- Ralph W. Harbison and Eric A. Hanushek, Educational performance of the poor: lessons from rural northeast Brazil (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
- João Batista Gomes-Neto and Eric A. Hanushek, "Causes and consequences of grade repetition: Evidence from Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change 43(1), October 1994: 117-148; Eric A. Hanushek, João Batista Gomes-Neto, and Ralph W. Harbison, "Efficiency-enhancing investments in school quality" in Opportunity foregone: Education in Brazil, edited by Nancy Birdsall and Richard H. Sabot (Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, 1996): 385-424.
- See Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Kain, and Steve G. Rivkin, "Why public schools lose teachers," Journal of Human Resources 39(2), Spring 2004: 326-354; Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin, "Constrained Job Matching: Does Teacher Job Search Harm Disadvantaged Urban Schools?" NBER w15816 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, March2010)
- Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Kain, and Steve G. Rivkin, "Inferring program effects for specialized populations: Does special education raise achievement for students with disabilities?" Review of Economics and Statistics 84(4), November 2002: 584-599.
- Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Kain, and Steve G. Rivkin, "Disruption versus Tiebout improvement: The costs and benefits of switching schools," Journal of Public Economics 88(9-10), 2004: 1721-1746.
- Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Kain, Steve G. Rivkin, and Gregory F. Branch, "Charter school quality and parental decision making with school choice," Journal of Public Economics 91(5-6), June 2007: 823-848.
- Jessie M. Rothstein, "Student sorting and bias in value-added estimation: Selection on observables and unobservables", Princeton University and NBER (January 11, 2009).
- Eric Hanushek Eric Hanushek's Stanford University web site.
- Baker, Bruce D. "Revisiting That Age-Old Question: Does Money Matter in Education?" (2012) Albert Shanker Institute.
- Robison, Mark. Fact Checker: The Facts Behind the News. "Is there no link between spending more on schools and improved student performance?" Reno Gazette-Journal, August 26, 2012.