Eric von Hippel
|Eric von Hippel|
|Born||August 27, 1941|
|Institutions||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Doctoral advisor||Dwight Bauman
Edward B. Roberts
|Doctoral students||Dietmar Haarhoff
Benjamin Mako Hill
|Known for||User innovation
Lead user theory
Eric von Hippel (born August 27, 1941) is an economist and a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, specializing in the nature and economics of distributed and open innovation. He is best known for his work developing the concept of user innovation – that end-users, rather than manufacturers, are responsible for a large amount of innovation. In order to describe this phenomenon, he introduced the term lead user in 1986. von Hippel's work has applications in business strategy and free/open source software (FOSS) and von Hippel is one of the most highly cited social scientists writing on FOSS.
Prof von Hippel is a member of the Advisory Board of Patient Innovation, a nonprofit, international, multilingual, free venue for patients and caregivers of any disease to share their innovations.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Education
- 3 Degrees
- 4 Major works
- 5 Progeny
- 6 Collaborators
- 7 Inspiration and Influences
- 8 Additional Information
- 9 Future Works
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Eric von Hippel grew up in suburban Weston, MA with his parents, three brothers, and one sister. In his early years, Eric attended public school within the town, but then moved on to the Cambridge School of Weston – a private progressive school – for 8th grade, as well as his latter years. Even as a young child, outside of the classroom, one of Eric's favorite past times was to try to create and invent new things. Much of his inspiration came from his father, Arthur Robert von Hippel who was also a professor at MIT.
For his undergraduate degree, Eric von Hippel attended Harvard College. In an interview with Eric, he cited that he chose Harvard over MIT for the opportunity to pursue Liberal Arts, as he majored in Economics. His decision to focus in Economics stemmed from his trials in Biology and History, and finding that neither was particularly the right fit for him. After pursuing several inventions post undergraduate, Eric returned to school for his Masters in Mechanical Engineering at MIT. From there, he went on to start his own company, worked at management consultant McKinsey and Co., and eventually studied at Carnegie Mellon University for his Ph.D. in Innovation.
- Technical Universität Hamburg-Harburg Ph.D. 2013 (Hon)
- Copenhagen Business School Ph.D. 2007 (Hon)
- Ludwig-Maximillians Universität München Ph.D. 2004 (Hon)
- Carnegie Mellon University Ph.D. 1974
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology S.M. 1966
- Harvard College B.A. 1964
Innovation by users and lead users
User innovation is the idea that more users and consumers are the innovators of new products instead of suppliers.
Eric von Hippel was one of the first to notice this trend and explore it. Products made by manufacturers are developed to meet a wide range of needs and a wide range of people. Therefore when a particular user experiences needs that are not yet felt by the majority of consumers, they make the adjustments themselves to meet their own needs. Often these ideas are then fed back to manufacturing companies through these users in hopes that the product will then be produced for them. This process is called « free revealing». User innovation can be seen across a wide range of products from home cleaning products, to medical device products. User innovation in scientific instruments has even been found to be a user dominated field through von Hippel's research. User innovation doesn't only extend to tangible products but also services. von Hippel found that eighty-five percent of individuals self-provided themselves with accounting and banking processes before banks offered this service.
An extension of user innovations is the idea of lead users. These are the individuals who first feel the need for a product or service and create it for themselves. Lead user identification is an essential method used by companies to identify the newest innovations in their product areas giving them crucial insight on the needs of their users.
On Professor von Hippel's website, it is stated that innovation toolkits are used to organize and support information that is shared amongst various users and producers of projects. In one of his papers entitled "Perspective: User toolkits for innovation," von Hippel describes how user toolkits can be used to help manufacturers and companies determine the users' need-related aspects of products and services. The users are provided with "user toolkits for innovation," to help the manufacturer outsource tasks that would normally take much time and effort within the company. One of the first areas that user toolkits have been used was in the design and manufacturing of custom integrated circuits. In this field it was critical that manufacturers understood user needs because it could result in months of delays costing the company thousands of dollars. LSI Logic produced a software design tool that its customers could use to design circuits themselves. This move helped LSI grow to be one of the major players in the custom IC market and competitors were soon moving in the same direction.
"Toolkits for user innovation are coordinated sets of "user-friendly" design tools that enable users to develop new product innovations for themselves. The toolkits are not general purpose. Rather, they are specific to the design challenges of a specific field or sub field, such as integrated circuit design or software product design."
Toolkits should have the following features:
- Learning by trial-and-error
- An appropriate solution space
- A user-friendly toolkit
- Commonly used modules
- Result easily created by user
Sticky information and its uses
Sticky information is information that is expensive to obtain, transmit, and employ in a new location compared to where it originated. "We define the stickiness of a given unit of information in a given instance as the incremental expenditure required to transfer that unit of information to a specified locus in a form usable by a given information seeker. When this cost is low, information stickiness is low; when it is high, stickiness is high," (von Hippel, 1994). Eric von Hippel has worked to define how sticky information influences innovation and how to overcome stickiness when trying to develop a new technology. Sticky information is often encountered when a manufacturers would like to know about how current users feel about their needs and if their needs are being met or not by current product lines. However this information would be difficult to acquire for the manufacturer, though it would be tremendously helpful in their pursuit of product innovation.
Information can be sticky for a number of reasons. Much information that humans have is tacit, and therefore is difficult to communicate when sharing information. Additionally, some technical information is composed of a very large number of parts. Sometimes it is difficult to communicate all of these especially when some operating procedures or techniques are so routine, a regular practitioner may forget to include such details.
The stickiness of a particular type of information can have influences on how advances are made in the field. For example, if a particular company holds much of the expertise and knowledge for a particular technology it will likely be difficult for another company to make advancements that originate from the original technology. Innovations are more likely to occur in the original company. This can also occur in a geographic manner. Local information can also be sticky and innovations that help a particular area with a special problem are likely to come from that area as well.
Measurements of innovation and innovation indicators
Researchers have not started quantifying user innovation until recently. It is important that researchers are able to measure innovation and gather statistics so that policymakers can see the impact of user innovation on modern day technologies. Research has shown that many of the innovative products produced by manufacturers were ideas stemmed off from "lead users." Eric von Hippel has written several papers regarding "Measurements of Innovation" and "Innovation Indicators." In one of his papers, he discusses his work with Fred Gault to survey 1,219 Canadian manufacturing plants to determine the prevalence of user innovation. They were able to determine that "About 20% of the user-innovators surveyed reported transferring their innovations to other users and/or equipment suppliers – and the majority of these at least sometimes did so at no charge to recipients." These types of innovation indicators will help the government and other researchers to see the impact of users on innovation.
Innovation strategies and lead user identification
Eric von Hippel has focused on the following major areas of innovation strategies in his research:
- Task partitioning
- Improvement of innovation processes
Task partitioning refers to innovation projects that are partitioned into smaller tasks. Professor von Hippel proposes that "problem-solving inter-dependence among tasks can be predicted in many projects and can then be managed by strategies involving (1) adjustment of the task specifications and/or (2) reduction of the barriers to problem-solving interaction across selected or all task boundaries."
Professor von Hippel calls attention to the improvement of innovation processes with great detail. He feels that the processes call for more scrutiny and that in turn "their improvement can significantly affect the kinds of research problems that can be addressed, the efficiency and speed with which R&D can be performed, and the competitive positions of firms employing them."
Through his papers, Eric von Hippel deems it critical for market researchers to look for lead users, "users who are on the leading edge of each identified trend in terms of related new product and process and who expect to obtain a relatively high net benefit from solutions to those needs." Pyramiding is a search process based upon the view that people with a strong interest in a topic or field tend to know people more expert than themselves. von Hippel states that it can sometimes be hard to identify lead users or the next CEO of any given company and pyramiding can assist in this process.
- The Sources of Innovation (1988) ISBN 0-19-509422-0, Oxford University Press PDF
- Democratizing Innovation (2005) ISBN 0-262-22074-1, Creative Commons PDF
Professor Eric von Hippel currently teaches both PhD students and post doctorates. One of his former PhD students was Karim R. Lakhani, who is currently an assistant professor of business administration at Harvard Business School. Karim studied under von Hippel at MIT and was awarded his Ph.D in management in 2006. He is a co-founder of the MIT-based Open Source research community and web portal, and has served as a "Lecturer in the Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship group at MIT's Sloan School of Management." Here are two of the papers that von Hippel and Lakhani have worked together on:
• von Hippel, Eric (2005) "Open source software projects as user innovation networks - no manufacturer required." in Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software, edited by J. Feller, B. Fitzgerald, S. Hissam, and K. Lakhani. Cambridge: MIT Press.
• Lakhani, Karim and Eric von Hippel (2003) "How Open Source Software Works: "Free" User-to-User Assistance," Research Policy Vol 32 No. 6 , (June) Pages 923-943
Professor von Hippel has many colleagues and collaborators who he has worked with on papers that he has written. One of his collaborators is Georg Von Krogh who is a professor at ETH Zurich and holds the Chair of Strategic Management and Innovation. The papers that they have worked on together are listed below:
• Von Krogh, Georg and Eric von Hippel (2006) "The High Promise of Research on Open Source Software," Management Science vol 52, No. 7 (July) pp. 975–983
• von Hippel, Eric and Georg von Krogh (2006) "Free Revealing and the Private-Collective Model for Innovation Incentives," R&D Management vol 36, No. 3, pp. 291–302.
• von Hippel, Eric and Georg von Krogh (2003), "Open Source Software and the "Private-Collective" Innovation Model: Issues for Organization Science" Organization Science 14 (2)208-223.
• Von Krogh, Georg and Eric von Hippel (2003), "Open Source Software: Introduction to a Special Issue of Research Policy," Research Policy Vol 32, No. 7, (July) pp. 1149–57.
Another person who Professor von Hippel has worked with on writing some of his papers is his former student, Karim R. Lakhani, who is currently an associate professor at Harvard Business School. For more information please see the description under "Progeny."
Marcie Tyre and Eric von Hippel have worked together on several papers as well. Marcie is currently a Scholar at Brandeis University's Women's Studies Research Center. Her research focuses on "the experience of mothering and becoming a mother in contemporary America." Prior to Brandeis, Tyre taught Management of Technology from 1988 to 1999 at MIT's Sloan School. Some of the papers that Tyre and von Hippel have worked on together include the following:
• Tyre, Marcie and Eric von Hippel (1997) "The Situated Nature of Adaptive Learning in Organizations" Organization Science, vol 8, No 1 (January–February) p. 71-83
• von Hippel, Eric and Marcie Tyre (1996) "The Mechanics of Learning by Doing: Problem Discovery During Process Machine Use." Technology and Culture 37 no.2 (April) p. 312-329.
• von Hippel, Eric and Marcie Tyre (1995) "How "Learning by Doing" is Done: Problem Identification in Novel Process Equipment." Vol 24, No.1 Research Policy (January) p. 1-12.
Inspiration and Influences
Even as a child Professor von Hippel was an innovative one as he likes to point out "(when you're a child) if you don't like what you have you make it yourself." Like the skateboards and scooters of the past generations kid designed and produced these products for themselves because they were not available to them otherwise. Professor von Hippel became very interested in this phenomenon and how it worked, which guided his path to where he is today. Professor von Hippel looks to the work of Professor Nathan Rosenberg of Stanford University whose research looks at the economics of technological change, the economic role of science, as well as economic history and development. Professor Richard Nelson of Columbia University, who focuses on the processes of long-run economic change, with particular emphasis on technological advances. As well as Professor Ann Carter of Brandeis who specializes in the fields of changing specialization of businesses and of workers, economics of information, technical change, and technology transfer. Professor von Hippel also sees Dr. Nikolaus Franke of Vienna University of Economics and Business as a great influence in the field of product innovation, Dr. Franke runs an institute on lead user innovation methods, and also focuses on market research .
In an interview with Professor Eric von Hippel he stated that his favorite aspect of his job was doing research, teaching and specifically, working with doctoral students. His own favorite teacher was a high school biology teacher, "a wonderful guy," von Hippel describes, and who showed him incredible new things in a new light. His idol is Jean Piaget who was a psychologist and a philosopher that focused on learning about the stages of kids lives from observations.
In this leisure time when he's not inventing something, he enjoys talking to people and spending time with his children. His family includes his wife Jessie who is an editor of scholarly books and journal articles and a tennis player, a daughter Christiana who is a Masters in Public Health student at Indiana University and first recipient of the Ryan White Legacy Scholarship for her work in promoting sexual health, and a son Eric James who studies the Japanese language and culture on his own. The family has a cockatiel named Merlin. When Eric von Hippel's daughter was young, he often made up cat-related bedtime stories because cats were her favorite animal. When Christiana was 14 and he was traveling with her they took the opportunity to write these stories down and the stories are entitled "Christiana in Catlandia."
Professor von Hippel's hopes to measure how many users innovate and what types of people do this type of work. Then he would like to show that most innovation is still user innovation. He finds it interesting that in the UK, 8% (3-4 million people) of consumers modify the product that they use. He also noted that hospitals have the right to develop and use ideas as long as they do not sell them and he would like to get the institutional review board to approve development in hospital use. In this way, doctors would do innovation first, and then companies would harness this innovation in order to develop. He stressed the fact that the number of consumers modifying products and thereby innovating outweighs the number of people doing this in companies.
- User innovation
- Lead user
- Toolkit for User Innovation and Design
- Private-Collective Model of Innovation
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (June 2010)|
- von Hippel, E. (1976). The dominant role of users in the scientific instrument innovation process. Research Policy, 5(3), 212-239. doi:10.1016/0048-7333(76)90028-7
- Oliveira, P. & von Hippel, E. A. (2009). Users as Service Innovators: The Case of Banking Services. Research Paper, MIT Sloan School of Management. Retrieved October 20, 2009
- Herstatt, C., & von Hippel, E. (1992). From experience: Developing new product concepts via the lead user method: A case study in a "low-tech" field. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 9(3), 213-221. doi:10.1016/0737-6782(92)90031-7
- Section 5: Innovation toolkits | Eric von Hippel
- von Hippel, Eric (2001). "Perspective: User toolkits for innovation". Journal of Product Innovation Management 18 (4): 247–257. doi:10.1111/1540-5885.1840247. ISSN 0737-6782. Retrieved 2014-12-05.
- von Hippel, Eric; Ralph Katz (2002). "Shifting innovation to users via toolkits". Management Science 48 (7): 821–833. ISSN 0025-1909. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
- von Hippel (1994), "'Sticky Information'" and the Locus of Problem Solving: Implications for Innovation" Management Science 40, no.4, April 1994: pp 429–439
- von Hippel (1998) "Economics of Product Development by Users: The Impact of "Sticky" Local Information" Management Science, vol. 44, No. 5 (May) p. 629-644
- Gault, F., & Hippel, E. A. V. (2009). The Prevalence of User Innovation and Free Innovation Transfers: Implications for Statistical Indicators and Innovation Policy, MIT Sloan Working Papers. MIT Sloan School of Management. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1337232
- von Hippel, E. (1990). Task partitioning: An innovation process variable. Research Policy, 19(5), 407-418. doi:10.1016/0048-7333(90)90049-C
- Thomke, S., von Hippel, E., & Franke, R. (1998). Modes of experimentation: an innovation process--and competitive--variable. Research Policy, 27(3), 315-332. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(98)00041-9
- von Hippel, Eric (1986), "Lead users: a source of novel product concepts", Management Science: 791–805
- von Hippel, E., Franke, N., & Prügl, R. (2008). 'Pyramiding': Efficient Identification of Rare Subjects, 4720-08. Sloan Working Paper, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved November 29, 2008, from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1286227
- Georg von Krogh
- Marcie Tyre | Scholars Profiles | WSRC | Brandeis University
- Nathan Rosenberg | SIEPR
- Univ. Prof. Dr. Nikolaus Franke - Institut für Entrepreneurship und Innovation | WU
- Just for Fun | Eric von Hippel
- UserInnovation.dk The largest resource center for user innovation
- Eric von Hippel's homepage at MIT.
- Available research papers.
- OpenInnovators.de - die erste Commnunity zu Open Innovation im deutschsprachigen Raum.
- The Economics of Open Content Symposium: New Models of Creative Production in the Digital Age Collaboration and the Marketplace
- Openeur - Open Innovation & Entrepreneurship - MCPC2007-Keynote by Eric von Hippel at MIT
- Bug Labs: BUGvonHippel
|Wikiversity has learning materials about Eric Von Hippel:Democratizing Innovation|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eric von Hippel.|