Erik Ivar Fredholm

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Erik Ivar Fredholm
Fredholm 2.jpeg
Erik Ivar Fredholm
Born 7 April 1866
Died 17 August 1927
Mörby (near Stockholm)
Nationality Swedish
Fields Mathematics
Doctoral advisor Gösta Mittag-Leffler
Doctoral students Nils Zeilon
Known for Analytic Fredholm theorem
Fredholm alternative
Fredholm determinant
Fredholm equation
Fredholm kernel
Fredholm module
Fredholm operator
Fredholm theory

Erik Ivar Fredholm (7 April 1866 – 17 August 1927) was a Swedish mathematician whose work on integral equations and operator theory foreshadowed the theory of Hilbert spaces.


Fredholm was born in Stockholm in 1866. He obtained his PhD at Uppsala University in 1898, under the supervision of Gösta Mittag-Leffler. He was docent at Stockholm University from 1898 to 1906 and professor from 1906 until his death.[1]

From 1911, he was married to Agnes Maria Liljeblad, the secretary of Mittag-Leffler.[2]

Mathematical work[edit]

In ( 1900, 1903), Fredholm introduced and analysed a class of integral equations now called Fredholm equations. His analysis included the construction of Fredholm determinants, and the proof of the Fredholm theorems.


Fredholm was a member of the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters and of the Accademia dei Lincei; he was awarded the Poncelet Prize for 1908.[3][4]

The lunar crater Fredholm is named after him.


  • Fredholm, I. (1900). "Sur une r nouvelle méthode pour la résolution du probléme de Dirichlet". Kong. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Fbrh. Stockholm (in French): 39–46. JFM 32.0435.02. 
  • Fredholm, E.I. (1903). "Sur une classe d'equations fonctionnelles". Acta Math 27: 365–390. doi:10.1007/bf02421317. JFM 34.0422.02. 
  • Fredholm, I. (1955). Oeuvres completes. Malmd: Litos Reprotryck. 


  1. ^ Nörlund & Carleman (1928)
  2. ^ Stubhaug (2010)
  3. ^ Nörlund & Carleman (1928)
  4. ^ "Séance du 7 décembre". Le Moniteur scientifique du Doctor Quesneville: 134. February 1909. 


External links[edit]