Erivan Governorate

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Erivan Governorate (English)
Эриванская губерния (Modern Russian)
Эриванская губернія (Pre-1918 Russian)
Gubernias del Caucaso - Gubernia de Erevan - Imperio Ruso.png
Coat of Arms
Coat of Arms of Erivan gubernia (Russian empire).png
Established 1850
Abolished 1917
Political status
Region
Governorate
Caucasus
Area
Area
- Rank
27,830 verst²
n/a
Population (1897 census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
- Urban
- Rural
829,556 inhabitants
n/a
29.8 inhab. / verst²
n/a
n/a
Government
First Head
Last Head
n/a
n/a

Erivan Governorate (Old Russian: Эриванская губернія; Armenian: Երևանի նահանգ) was one of the guberniyas of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Erivan (present-day Yerevan). Its area was 27,830 sq. kilometres.[1] It roughly corresponded to what is now most of central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan exclave. At the end of the 19th century it bordered with Persia, Ottoman Empire, Elisabethpol Governorate, Tiflis Governorate, and Kars Oblast. According to Russian censuses, it was the only subdivision of the Russian Empire where Armenians were the absolute majority of the population.[citation needed]

In 1828, the khanates of Erivan and the Nakhchivan were annexed from Persia by the Russian Empire in accordance with the Treaty of Turkmenchay. They were included into a single administrative unit named the Armenian oblast. In 1850 the oblast was reorganized into a governorate, and by 1872 it consisted of 7 uyezds. Louis Joseph Jérôme Napoléon (1864–1932), grandnephew of Napoleon I, was made governor in 1905 to help calm the governorate after the Armenian-Tatar conflicts.[2] In 1918 most of Erivan Governorate became part of the First Republic of Armenia and later the Armenian SSR/current Armenia.[citation needed]

Administrative division[edit]

Erivan Governorate consisted of the following uyezds:

Uyezd Uyezd town Area, km2 Population (1897)
1 Alexandrapol Alexandrapol 3,759.8 168,435
2 Nakhichevan Nakhichevan 3,858.8 86,878
3 Novo-Bayazet Novo-Bayazet 6,123.8 112,111
4 Surmalu Igdir 3,245.0 88,844
5 Sharur-Daralagyoz Sharur 2,972.3 76,551
6 Erivan Erivan 3,032.0 127,072
7 Echmiadzin Echmiadzin 3,858.0 124,643

Demographics[edit]

According to the Russian census of 1897, the Erivan Governorate had 829,556 inhabitants.[3] 56% of the governorate's population was Armenian, 37.5% was Azerbaijanis (referred to as Azerbaijani Tatars in the 1897 census).[4] The Azerbaijanis were in a majority in the Erivan, Nakhichevan, Sharur-Daralagyoz, and Surmali districts; the other three uyezds were predominantly Armenian. Other ethnic minorities included Kurds (5.9%), Russians (2.1%), as well as smaller numbers of Greeks, Georgians, Jews and Gypsies.[3]

Ethnic groups in 1897[edit]

Ethnic groups in Erivan Governorate according to 1897 Russian census.[5]

Uyezd Armenians Azerbaijani Kurds Russians Assyrians
TOTAL 53,2% 37,8% 6,0% 1,6% ...
Alexandropol 85,5% 4,7% 3,0% 3,4% ...
Nakhichevan 34,4% 63,7% ... ... ...
Novo-Bayazet 66,3% 28,3% 2,4% 2,2% ...
Surmalu 30,4% 46,5% 21,4% ... ...
Sharur-Daralagyoz 27,1% 67,4% 4,9% ... ...
Erivan 38,5% 51,4% 5,4% 2,0% 1,5%
Etchmiadzin 62,4% 29,0% 7,8% ... ...

Governors[edit]

List of the governors of Erivan Governorate.[6]

  • 1849 - 1859 Ivan Nazarov
  • 1860 - 1862 Mikhail Astafev
  • 1862 - 1863 Nikolai Kolyubakin
  • 1863 - 1865 Aleksey Kharitonov
  • 1869 - 1873 Nikolai Karmalin
  • 1873 - 1880 Mikhail Roslavlev
  • March 22, 1880 - December 22, 1890 Mikhail Shalikov
  • February 2, 1891 - November 16, 1895 Alexander Frese
  • February 20, 1896 - 1916 Vladimir Tiesenhausen
  • 1905 Louis Joseph Jérôme Napoléon
  • 1905 - 1906 Maksud Alikhanov-Avarskiy
  • 1916 - 1917 Arkady Strelbitskiy
  • March 14, 1917 - November 1917 V.A. Kharlamov
  • November 1917 Avetis Agaryan
  • 1917-1917 Sokrat Tyurosyan

References[edit]

See also[edit]

Coordinates: 40°11′00″N 44°31′00″E / 40.1833°N 44.5167°E / 40.1833; 44.5167