Erlangen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Erlangen
View over Erlangen, 2012
View over Erlangen, 2012
Coat of arms of Erlangen
Coat of arms
Erlangen   is located in Germany
Erlangen
Erlangen
Coordinates: 49°35′N 11°1′E / 49.583°N 11.017°E / 49.583; 11.017Coordinates: 49°35′N 11°1′E / 49.583°N 11.017°E / 49.583; 11.017
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Mittelfranken
District Urban district
Subdivisions 20 Ortsteile
Government
 • Lord Mayor Florian Janik (SPD)
Area
 • Total 76.90 km2 (29.69 sq mi)
Elevation 280 m (920 ft)
Population (2013-12-31)[1]
 • Total 105,624
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 91001–91058
Dialling codes 09131,
0911 (OT Hüttendorf),
09132 (OT Neuses),
09135 (OT Dechsendorf)
Vehicle registration ER
Website www.erlangen.de
Erlangen around 1915
Erlangen castle

Erlangen (German pronunciation: [ˈɛrlaŋən]; East Franconian: Erlang) is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located at the confluence of the river Regnitz and its large tributary, the Untere Schwabach. Erlangen has more than 100,000 inhabitants.

Erlangen is today dominated by the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg and the numerous branch offices of Siemens AG, as well as a large research Institute of the Fraunhofer Society and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light. An event that left its mark on the city was the settlement of Huguenots after the withdrawal of the Edict of Nantes in 1685.

Felix Klein's Erlangen program, considering the future of research in mathematics, is so called because Klein was then at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.

History[edit]

Erlangen was first mentioned in official records in 1002 under the name of Villa Erlangon. In 1361, the village was sold to Emperor Karl IV. Three years later, a city was built close to the village, which in 1374 got its own coining station (mint). In 1398, the municipal rights were confirmed. In 1402, the city came into the possession of the House of Hohenzollern as part of the principality of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (from 1603 on Brandenburg-Bayreuth), remaining under their rule until 1806. During the four year Napoleonic occupation, Erlangen was the capital of the so-called "Low County" (Unterland) of the principality, encompassing the area until Neustadt an der Aisch and separated from the "High County" (Oberland) by a land corridor. In 1810 it became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, together with the rest of former Brandenburg-Bayreuth.

While it was still part of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, the first French Huguenot refugees arrived in Erlangen in 1686. Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, built a "new town" (Neustadt) for them. In 1706, the old town (just below the site of the annual Bergkirchweih) was almost completely destroyed by a fire, but soon rebuilt. In 1812, the old and new towns were merged into one.

In 1742, Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, founded a university for his royal seat of Bayreuth, but due to the rebelliousness of the local students, the university was transferred to Erlangen. Only later did it obtain the name of "Friedrich-Alexander-University" and become a Prussian state university. Famous students of these times were Johann Ludwig Tieck and Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder.

Already during the Bavarian municipal reform of 1818, the city was endowed with its own administration. In 1862, the canton administration Erlangen was founded, from which later arose the administrative district of Erlangen. In 1972, this district was merged with the administrative district of Höchstadt. Erlangen became the capital of this newly founded district Erlangen-Höchstadt. During this municipal reform, Erlangen was effectively enlarged considerably, thus in 1974 it had more than 100,000 inhabitants.

Points of interest[edit]

Bergkirchweih[edit]

The Bergkirchweih is an annual beer festival, similar to the Oktoberfest in Munich but smaller in scale. It takes place during the twelve days before and after Pentecost; this period is called the "fifth season" by the locals. The beer is served at wooden tables in one-litre stoneware jugs under the trees of the "Berg", a small, craggy, and wooded hill with old caves (beer cellars) owned by local breweries. The cellars extend for 21 km (14 miles)[2] throughout the hill (the "Berg") and maintain a constant cool underground temperature. Until Carl von Linde invented the electric refrigerator in 1871, this was considered to be the largest refrigerator in Southern Germany.[3]

The beer festival draws more than one million visitors annually. It features carnival rides of high tech quality, food stalls of most Franconian dishes, including bratwurst, suckling pig, roasted almonds, and giant pretzels.

It is commonly known by local residents as the "Berchkärwa" (pronounced "bairch'-care-va") or simply the "Berch", like in "Gehma auf'n Berch!" ("Let's go up the mountain!").

This is an outdoor event frequented and enjoyed by Franconians. Despite a relatively high number of visitors, it is not commonly known by tourists, or people living outside Bavaria.

Districts[edit]

  • Am Anger
  • Alterlangen
  • Bruck, pop. 20,000
  • Büchenbach
  • Burgberg
  • Dechsendorf
  • Eltersdorf, pop. around 3,200
  • Frauenaurach
  • Häusling
  • Hüttendorf
  • Innenstadt
  • Kosbach
  • Kriegenbrunn
  • Neusses
  • Röthelheim
  • Schallershof/Sonnenblick
  • Sieglitzhof/Buckenhofer Siedlung
  • Steudach
  • Tennenlohe[4]

Historical population[edit]

Year Population
1495 292
1630 550
1752 7,939
1830 9,800
December 1, 1871¹ 12,500
December 1, 1890¹ 17,559
December 1, 1900¹ 22,953
December 1, 1910¹ 24,877
June 16, 1925¹ 29,597
June 16, 1933¹ 32,348
May 17, 1939¹ 35,964
September 13, 1950¹ 50,690
June 16, 1961¹ 69,552
May 27, 1970¹ 84,110
June 20, 1975 100,700
June 30, 1980 100,900
June 30, 1985 100,000
May 27, 1987¹ 99,808
June 30, 1997 100,700
December 31, 1997 100,330
December 31, 1998 100,775
December 31, 1999 100,750
December 31, 2000 100,778
December 31, 2001 101,912
December 31, 2002 102,198
December 31, 2003 102,449
December 31, 2004 102,627
December 31, 2005 103,426
Largest groups of foreign residents[5]
Nationality Population (2013)
 Turkey 1,711
 Italy 972
 Austria 792
 China 748
 Greece 742
 India 660

Mayors of Erlangen[edit]

International relations[edit]

Erlangen is twinned with several cities:

Further partnerships[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]