|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2009)|
|Region||National Capital Region|
|Congressional districts||Part of the 5th district of Manila|
|• Total||1.59 km2 (0.61 sq mi)|
|• Density||3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)|
Ermita is a district of Manila and a major commercial, financial, and cultural center of the city. Many hotels, casinos and offices are located in this district. Ermita is also the home to famous landmarks, government offices, tourist attractions, museums, and universities. It is the civic center of Manila and the Manila metropolitan region, hosting the seat of city government and a large portion of the area's employment, business, and entertainment activities.
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Ermita was founded in the late 16th century. Its name was taken from La Hermita, the Spanish word for "hermitage", after the fact that on this site was built a hermitage housing an image of the Virgin Mary known as the Nuestra Señora de Guia (Our Lady of Guidance). The hermitage has since evolved into Ermita Church, which has been rebuilt several times since the early 17th century.
Ermita gained renewed prominence during the American colonial period. It became known as the university district, containing the campuses and dormitories of the University of the Philippines, the Ateneo de Manila, Adamson University, the Assumption College and St. Paul College. The residential portion of Ermita was populated by American residents, who set up such establishments as the Army and Navy Club, and the University Club.
In February 1945, during the 1945 Battle of Manila, Ermita was the scene of some of the most horrific massacres that occurred during the Second War War. The wife and four children of future President Elpidio Quirino were murdered in Ermita, as was Supreme Court Associate Justice Anacleto Diaz. Between 68% to 85% of Ermita was destroyed during the Battle of Manila, with an estimated total of 100,000 Filipino civilians killed in the city itself.
Ermita was rebuilt after the devastation of the war. University life remained vibrant therein. However, as decades passed, Ermita started earning a reputation as the red-light district of Manila. During the term of Mayor Alfredo Lim, an effort was made to "clean up" Ermita's image and reputation. However, a local city ordinance prohibiting the establishment of motels, lodging houses and other similar establishments, was later declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. As a result of the clean-up efforts, nightlife in the area dwindled though it later picked up with the help of the emergence of the nearby Malate district and the Roxas Boulevard revitalization efforts along Manila Bay.
Sites of interest
Manila Doctor's Hospital Several government institutions are housed in Ermita, including:
- Supreme Court of the Philippines
- Court of Appeals
- Department of Justice
- Manila City Hall
- Manila Central Post Office
and other offices found along the old government center designed during the American era by architect and urban planner Daniel Burnham, such as the:
- National Museum of the Philippines
- Rizal Park, the widest open urban public park in the country and location of the monument to the national hero José Rizal, is a prominent feature of Ermita. This was the original site for Burnham's planned government center and capitol building.
Other sites of interest in Ermita include:
- Embassy of the United States, Manila
- National Library of the Philippines
- National Archives of the Philippines
- Quirino Grandstand
- Manila Ocean Park
- Bonifacio Shrine
- Liwasang Bonifacio
- Metropolitan Theater
- Manila Hotel
- The Masonic Temple of Ermita
- National Cathedral of the Philippine Independent Church
- San Vicente de Paul Church
- Archdiocesan Shrine of Nuestra Señora de Guia (Ermita Shrine)
- Philippine General Hospital, the country's largest hospital
A number of educational institutions are also found in Ermita, including:
- University of the Philippines, Manila
- Adamson University
- Emilio Aguinaldo College
- Santa Isabel College
- Philippine Normal University
- Technological University of the Philippines
- Universidad de Manila (formerly the City College of Manila)
- Manila Science High School
Zone 71: 659, 659-A, 660, 660-A, 661, 663, 663-A, 664
Zone 72: 666, 667, 668, 669, 670
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ermita.|
- Aluit, Alfonso (1994). "The Christian City". By Sword and Fire: The Destruction of Manila in World War II 3 February - 3 March 1945. Philippines: National Commission for Culture and the Arts. pp. 85–89. ISBN 971-8521-10-0.
- Final Results - 2007 Census of Population
- By Sword and Fire: The Destruction of Manila in World War II 3 February - 3 March 1945, p. 85-86
- By Sword and Fire: The Destruction of Manila in World War II 3 February - 3 March 1945, p. 89
- By Sword and Fire: The Destruction of Manila in World War II 3 February - 3 March 1945, p. 405
- G.R. No. 118127. April 12, 2005 (archived from the original on 2008-02-24)