Ernest Blythe

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For the Australian politician, see Ernest Blyth.
Ernest Blythe
Minister for Posts and Telegraphs
In office
12 October 1927 – 9 March 1932
Preceded by W. T. Cosgrave
Succeeded by Joseph Connolly
Vice-President of the Executive Council
In office
14 July 1927 – 9 March 1932
Preceded by Kevin O'Higgins
Succeeded by Seán T. O'Kelly
Minister for Finance
In office
21 September 1923 – 9 March 1932
Preceded by W. T. Cosgrave
Succeeded by Seán MacEntee
Minister for Local Government
In office
30 August 1922 – 15 October 1923
Succeeded by Séamus Burke
Personal details
Born (1889-04-13)13 April 1889
Lisburn, County Antrim,
Ireland
Died 23 February 1975(1975-02-23) (aged 85)
Dublin, Ireland
Political party Sinn Féin
Cumann na nGaedheal
Fine Gael
Spouse(s) Anne McHugh
Religion Presbyterian

Ernest Blythe, also known as Ernest Blyth (Irish: Earnán de Blaghd; 13 April 1889 – 23 February 1975) was an Irish journalist, managing director of the Abbey Theatre, and politician.[1][2]

Early life[edit]

Ernest Blythe was born to a Presbyterian[3] and Unionist family near Lisburn, County Antrim in 1889, the son of a farmer, and was educated locally. His mother was a Presbyterian while his father was a Unionist. Blythe attended the Megaberry Cross Roads primary school in county Antrim. At the age of fifteen he started working as a clerk in the Department of Agriculture in Dublin.[4]

Sean O’Casey invited Blythe to join the Irish Republican Brotherhood which Blythe accepted.[5] He also joined the Conradh na Gaeilge, where his Irish teacher was Sinéad Flanagan, the future wife of Éamon de Valera.[5]

A literary revolutionist's career[edit]

In 1909 Blythe became a junior news reporter with the North Down Herald. To improve his knowledge of the Irish language, he went to the Kerry Gaeltacht where he worked as an agricultural labourer to earn his keep.[4]

During this time, he was the organizer for the Irish Volunteers in Clare before 1916. His activity spread all over the south-west region to counties Kerry, Cork, Limerick and Clare. He became Captain of the Lipsole company. he toured the region with a list of names of people to recruit.[6] Blythe was one of the few organizers sent out into the country (others were Liam Mellows and Ernie O'Malley) and with little qualification was largely self-taught. Supplies were few and far between, as well as spasmodic. IRA GHQ were loth to commit scant resources. But Blythe was expected to drill, and train his men, as well avoid conscription.[7]

Blythe was regularly arrested 1913-15 under the Defense of the Realm Act, when he was finally ordered deportation in July 1915: some of the others on the writ were Liam Mellows, Herbert Pim, and Denis McCullough. Blythe's place was taken by Desmond Fitzgerald.[8] He refused to transport to Britain so was sent to spend three months in Crumlin Roads Prison, Belfast. On 30 March 1916, a large crowd assembled outside the Mansion House in Dublin to protest against Blythe's and Mellows's deportation. Two policemen were shot at.[9]

Thus, the authorities sent him to a town in Berkshire. He then failed to report to police and was sent to Oxford Prison. Blythe was unable to participate in the Easter Rising due to his imprisonment in Oxford Prison.[5] Shortly after his release, he was sent to Brixton Prison and then transferred to Reading Prison. He was released on Christmas 1916, and was ordered never to return to Ireland. However, he returned to Belfast where he was later detained. He was later released and went to Skibbereen to edit the Southern Star which had been purchased by Sinn Féin. He ignored a court martial to leave Munster which resulted in a 12 months imprisonment in Dundalk and Belfast. During his time in Dundalk, he went on hunger strike for several days.

He married Anne McHugh in 1919.

Political life[edit]

Blythe first became involved in electoral politics in 1918 when he won the general election of 1918 and became a Teachta Dála (TD) for North Monaghan.[10] He also served as the minister of Trade and Commerce until 1922.

Like so many irishpeople Blythe was implacably opposed to the useless slaughter of the trenches; and as such the senseless codification of enforced murder, that was conscription.In an article entitled 'Ruthless Warfare' he described conscription as an "atrocity".

We must decide that in our resistance we shall acknowledge no limit and no scruple...[man who] assists directly or by connivance in this crime against us should be killed without mercy or hesitation....The man who serves on an exemption tribunal, the doctor who examines conscripts, the man who voluntarily surrenders when called for, the man who applies exemption, the man who drives a police car or assists in the transport of army supplies, must be shot or otherwise destroyed with the least possible delay.

The impossibility of enforcing conscription alienated people across the island of Ireland from British policy in general. Instead a war of words emerged in which single issues, like conscription, would serve cohere to a general desire for Irish cultural identity and separation.

Only protestant in the cabinet[edit]

Awareness of religious differences was acute: for his part Blythe noticed that there was even a catholic priest in the IRB. But being a rare moderate Blythe was a strong supporter of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921. Consequently he landed position of Minister for Finance in W. T. Cosgrave's first government in 1923. He is the only Ulster protestant to have served at cabinet level in the 26 County state.[11] He was also Minister for Posts and Telegraphs from 1922 to 1932 and Vice-President of the Executive Council.[4]

Blythe was committed to keeping a balanced budget at all costs, which was not at all easy. The Irish Civil War had placed an enormous strain on the nascent Irish Free State, with public spending almost doubling during its course. As a result, Blythe was confronted with a projected budget of more than £8 million for the following year when the national debt already stood at £6 million. There was widespread criticism when he reduced old-age pensions from 10 shillings (50p) to 9 shillings (45p) a week in the June 1924 Old Age Pensions Act. This has long been popularly credited for the fall of the Cumann na nGaedheal government, though this did not in fact occur for nine years, though the coming of Fianna Fail to the Dáil in 1927 would deprive Cumann na nGaedheal of its majority, and the party would cease to exist in 1933.[4]

In 1926, as Minister for Finance, he introduced the Coinage Bill so that Ireland had "a coinage distinctively our own, bearing the devices of this country."[12] It was not until December 12, 1928, that the newly designed coins by Percy Metcalfe were put into circulation. The delay was due to controversy over the animal designs chosen by the government-appointed committee, chaired by W.B. Yeats, set up to advise on the design of the coins.[12]

He funded the Shannon hydroelectric scheme during the late 1920s.

Despite his austerity policies in relation to the old and poor, Blythe readily funded pet projects; in just one year, 1929, his Department of Finance allocated £6,400 – a huge sum at the time – for translation into Irish of novels including Dracula by Bram Stoker.[13]

In 1930 he wondered aloud whether "the gods of democracy have not feet of clay...the franchise in the hands of an ignorant and foolish populace is a menace to the country".[14]

Cumann na nGaedheal had a very conservative policy at the start of the 1930s, seeing their role as running a tight financial ship and facilitating trade, and not intervening in the economy. Between 1929 and 1935, the last three years of his time as Finance Minister and the first three years of a Fianna Fail government, Irish agricultural exports fell in value by almost 63% from 35 million pounds to 13.5 million pounds annually, and Ireland's total export value to Britain fell from 43.5 million to 18 million pounds, another drop of over 50%.[15]

At the 1933 general election Blythe lost his seat. Shortly afterwards he participated in the formation of the Blueshirts. At an Army Comrades Association executive meeting in February 1933 he proposed that the colour blue be the colour of the uniform of the new organization.[16] In April 1933, the ACA began wearing the distinctive blue shirt uniform. Blythe prepared the speeches of the Blueshirt leader (Eoin O'Duffy) and participated in Blueshirt (now called the National Guard) meetings all over the country.[17] However following an aborted attempt at a political parade in Dublin the National Guard was banned. Cumann na nGaedheal and the National Centre Party merged to form a new party, Fine Gael, on 3 September 1933.[18]

In January 1934 Blythe was elected to fill a vacancy in the Senate created by the death of Ellen Cuffe, Countess of Desart. He served in the Senate until the institution was abolished in 1936. He then retired from active political life.

In the 1940s he supported the right-wing party Ailtirí na hAiséirghe, led by Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin.[19]

Abbey Theatre[edit]

While Minister of Finance, Ernest Blythe granted a small annual subsidy to the Abbey Theatre. This made the Abbey Theatre the first state subsidised theatre in the English-speaking world. In 1935, from an invitation from W.B. Yeats, he became a director of the Abbey Theatre. Between 1941 and 1967 he served as managing director of the Abbey Theatre. He remained a director until 1972.

Blythe was highly criticised during his time as Managing Director.[20] It was said that he rejected many good plays in favour of those which were more financially rewarding and ran the theatre into the ground as a creative force.[21]

Upon criticism of Blythe only performing comedies, he replied: "There is no reason, snobbery apart. Why, in their plays, dramatists should boycott ordinary dwellings. Most people in Ireland are the habituees of farmhouse kitchens, city tenements or middle-class sitting-rooms and their loves and hates, disappointments and triumphs, grief’s and joys, are just as interesting and amusing, or as touching, as those of, shall we say alliteratively, denizens of ducal drawing-rooms, or boozers in denizened brothels".[citation needed]

Blythe brought to prominence several Irish dramatists. These included Brian Friel, Seamus Byrne, Micheal J. Mollow, Hugh Leonard and many more.

It was through Blythe's efforts that the new Abbey Theatre was built. He was responsible for raising £750,000 to rebuild the theatre which had been destroyed by fire on 18 July 1951. In August 1967, Blythe resigned as Managing Director of the Abbey Theatre. He remained as a member of the theatre board until 1972. He was also an active member of the Television Authority.

Later life[edit]

Throughout his life he was committed to the revival of the Irish language. He encouraged Micheál MacLiammóir and Hilton Edwards to found an Irish language theatre in Galway.

Blythe wrote a book Briseadh na Teorann (The smashing of the border) which was published in 1955. It was a revised account of the partition question regarding the divide of the North and South of Ireland. Although his book didn't get the recognition it deserved as it was written in Irish, Blythe's contribution to the partition question is regarded as both pioneering and influential.[22]

He published two volumes of autobiography: Trasna na Bóinne (1957) and Slán le hUltaibh (1969).

Ernest Blythe died on the 23 February 1975. His death signaled the end of the Irish language revival movement. His funeral service was held in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

Influence on society[edit]

Blythe saw his role in politics, as previously stated in this article, as having to keep the economy balanced at all times, this is why his name has 'established a public notoriety far beyond' political circles.[11] During his tenure, 'taxation remained low as did spending'.[23] Blythe's subsidy to The Abbey Theatre influenced the performing arts in Irish society.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mr. Ernest Blythe". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 5 February 2012. 
  2. ^ Parliamentary Debates: Official Report Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons - 1921 - Page 210 "The real name of the person whose signature appears on this particular document is Ernest Blyth, who prefers to be known as Earnan de Blaghd. He has been under notice for seditious behaviour since 1914, and has been several times ..."
  3. ^ http://books.google.ie/books?id=Fj24SfE_AcoC&pg=PT317&lpg=PT317&dq=Ernest+Blythe+presbyterian&source=bl&ots=wzYV8SF-0M&sig=txjzxR1EdYOOQN0rwcV41teXP9c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KSkXVO71G7OA7QbfwYDIDQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Ernest%20Blythe%20presbyterian&f=false
  4. ^ a b c d Boylan, Henry (1998). A Dictionary of Irish Biography, 3rd Edition. Dublin: Gill and MacMillan. p. 29. ISBN 0-7171-2945-4. 
  5. ^ a b c Neill, T. (1979) Ernest Blythe: The Man from Magheragall. [Electronic Version] Lisburn Historical Society, 2 (4)
  6. ^ Bureau of Military History WS 939 (Ernest Blythe), as cited by Townshend, p.34.
  7. ^ Townshend, p.75.
  8. ^ Townshend, p.82.
  9. ^ Cd.8311, para.807., as cited by Townshend, p.148.
  10. ^ "Ernest Blythe". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 5 February 2012. 
  11. ^ a b McCourt, R. (2014). Ernest Blythe as Minister for Finance in the Irish Free State, 1923-32. Parliamentary History, 33(3), 475-500. doi:10.1111/1750-0206.12107
  12. ^ a b http://www.historyireland.com/20th-century-contemporary-history/devilish-devices-or-farmyard-friends/
  13. ^ http://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/homes-and-property/fine-art-antiques/irish-translation-of-dracula-funded-by-minister-who-slashed-the-old-age-pension-1.1849581
  14. ^ http://www.theirishstory.com/2013/04/08/democracy-in-ireland-a-short-history/#.VISxE_nF_OU
  15. ^ Hill, M., & Lynch, J. (2014). Multitext - Ireland: society & economy, 1912-49. Multitext.ucc.ie. Retrieved 14 November 2014, from http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/Ireland_society__economy_1912-49#3TheinterWarperiod
  16. ^ Ernest Blythe Papers, P24/655(h), University College Dublin archives, (February 1933) 1, note 2.
  17. ^ Furlong, Nicholas (2003). A History of County Wexford. Dublin: Gill and McMillan. pp. 150ff. ISBN 9780717165407. 
  18. ^ Mark Tierney, OSB, MA “Modern Ireland”, Gill & Macmillan, 1972 p 175-182
  19. ^ Eoin O'Duffy, Fearghal McGarry
  20. ^ Mikhail E.H, (1988). The Abbey Theatre: Interviews and Recollections. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield
  21. ^ "A revival in Ireland and subsidised theatre". Arnold Kemp. 1 March 2011. [dead link]
  22. ^ O'Corrain, D. (2006) Ireland in His Heart North and South: The Contribution of Ernest Blythe to the Partition Question. [Electronic Version] Irish Historical Studies, 35 (137) 61-80.
  23. ^ Dorney, J. (2011). Life and Debt – A short history of public spending, borrowing and debt in independent Ireland. The Irish Story. Retrieved 14 November 2014, from http://www.theirishstory.com/2011/01/25/life-and-debt-%E2%80%93-a-short-history-of-public-spending-borrowing-and-debt-in-independent-ireland/#.VGXauvmsWSp

Bibliography[edit]

  • Townshend. C, Easter 1916: The Irish Rebellion (London 2006)
  • Townshend. C, The Republic: The Fight For Irish Independence (London 2014)
Political offices
New office Minister for Trade and Commerce
1919–1922
Succeeded by
Joseph McGrath
Preceded by
W. T. Cosgrave
Minister for Local Government
1922–1923
Succeeded by
Séamus Burke
Preceded by
W. T. Cosgrave
Minister for Finance
1923–1932
Succeeded by
Seán MacEntee
Preceded by
Kevin O'Higgins
Vice-President of the Executive Council
1927–1932
Succeeded by
Seán T. O'Kelly
Preceded by
James J. Walsh
Minister for Posts and Telegraphs
1927–1932
Succeeded by
Joseph Connolly