Ernest E. Evans

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For other people named Ernest Evans, see Ernest Evans (disambiguation).
Ernest Edwin Evans
E E Evans at USS Johnston commissioning.jpg
LCdr. Ernest E. Evans at the commissioning ceremonies of USS Johnston (DD-557), Seattle, Washington, October 27, 1943.
Born (1908-08-13)August 13, 1908
Pawnee, Oklahoma
Died October 25, 1944(1944-10-25) (aged 36)
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch  United States Navy
Years of service 1931 - 1944
Rank US-O5 insignia.svg Commander
Commands held USS Alden (DD-211)
USS Johnston (DD-557)
Battles/wars World War II
*Battle off Samar
Awards Medal of Honor
Navy Cross
Bronze Star
Purple Heart
American Defense Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal
Philippine Liberation Medal

Ernest Edwin Evans (August 13, 1908 – October 25, 1944) was an officer of the United States Navy who posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle off Samar in World War II.

Biography[edit]

Evans, of Native American ancestry (half Cherokee and one quarter Creek), was born in Pawnee, Oklahoma. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1931. During World War II, he commanded the destroyer USS Alden (DD-211) and later became the only skipper of the Fletcher-class destroyer USS Johnston (DD-557). Commanding Johnston, he was awarded the Bronze Star for meritorious achievement in action against a Japanese submarine on May 16, 1944.

In the Battle off Samar, a part of the Battle of Leyte Gulf, Evans fought his ship gallantly until it was sunk on October 25, 1944, by the Japanese force that was superior in number, firepower, and armor. Johnston, together with the destroyers USS Hoel (DD-533) and USS Heermann (DD-532), four destroyer escorts and six escort carriers (CVEs) formed the task unit 77.4.3, known as Taffy 3. This group, together with planes from Taffy 2 (TU 77.4.2), ultimately forced a vastly superior Japanese battlegroup consisting of several battleships, heavy cruisers, light cruisers and destroyers to abort its original mission to attack the landing beaches at Leyte under the command of General Douglas MacArthur and retreat.

The fate of the Johnston's captain was never conclusively established, and remains the subject of continuing conjecture among the ship's survivors. Some claim that he was hit by Japanese naval shellfire; others that he was able to jump into a damaged motor whaleboat. What is known is that he was seriously wounded during the battle; that he lived long enough to give the abandon ship order; and that he was not among those rescued. Evans posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his material contribution to the decisive victory won in Leyte Gulf and shared in the Presidential Unit Citation awarded his group for this action in which he gave his life.

When the Japanese fleet during the Battle off Samar was first sighted, Evans did not hesitate and his ship immediately headed directly towards the far superior enemy. He is reported to have told his crew over the ship's intercom: "A large Japanese fleet has been contacted. They are fifteen miles away and headed in our direction. They are believed to have four battleships, eight cruisers, and a number of destroyers. This will be a fight against overwhelming odds from which survival cannot be expected. We will do what damage we can." The last portion of the quote ("This will be ... damage we can.") is usually credited to LCDR Robert W. Copeland of the USS Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413), who charged in with Evans.

Namesake[edit]

In 1955, the destroyer escort USS Evans (DE-1023) was named in his honor.[1] Decommissioned in 1968, no active ship carries the name of the Evans or the Johnston, although a number of active ships have been named for the Samuel B Roberts and her crew. On November 12, 2013, a petition was created to name a ship after Evans.[2]

The Naval Station Newport, Newport, Rhode Island, Surface Warfare Officers School's virtual simulator for shiphandling training was dedicated as the Evans Full Mission-2 Simulator in Evans' honor 23 May 2013.[3]

Decorations[edit]

A light blue ribbon with five white five pointed stars
Medal of Honor Navy Cross Bronze Star Purple Heart
American Defense Service Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal Philippine Liberation Medal

Medal of Honor citation[edit]

Medal of Honor

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Johnston in action against major units of the enemy Japanese fleet during the battle off Samar on 25 October 1944. The first to lay a smokescreen and to open fire as an enemy task force, vastly superior in number, firepower and armor, rapidly approached. Comdr. Evans gallantly diverted the powerful blasts of hostile guns from the lightly armed and armored carriers under his protection, launching the first torpedo attack when the Johnston came under straddling Japanese shellfire. Undaunted by damage sustained under the terrific volume of fire, he unhesitatingly joined others of his group to provide fire support during subsequent torpedo attacks against the Japanese and, outshooting and outmaneuvering the enemy as he consistently interposed his vessel between the hostile fleet units and our carriers despite the crippling loss of engine power and communications with steering aft, shifted command to the fantail, shouted steering orders through an open hatch to men turning the rudder by hand and battled furiously until the Johnston, burning and shuddering from a mortal blow, lay dead in the water after 3 hours of fierce combat. Seriously wounded early in the engagement, Comdr. Evans, by his indomitable courage and brilliant professional skill, aided materially in turning back the enemy during a critical phase of the action. His valiant fighting spirit throughout this historic battle will venture as an inspiration to all who served with him.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ *"history.navy.mil: USS Evans". Retrieved September 29, 2010. 
  2. ^ * http://wh.gov/lBqUJ. Retrieved November 12, 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ Edward A. Sherman Publishing Co. (7 June 2013). "SWOS simulator renamed after heroic destroyerman". Newport Navalog. p. 9. 

References[edit]

  • Cox, Robert Jon (2010). The Battle Off Samar: Taffy III at Leyte Gulf (5th Edition). Agogeebic Press, LLC. ISBN 0-9822390-4-1. 
  • James D. Hornfischer The Last Stand of the Tin Can Sailors Bantam Books, 2004. ISBN 0-553-80257-7
  • Evan Thomas Sea of Thunder: Four Commanders and the Last Great Naval Campaign 1941-1945 Simon & Schuster, 2006. ISBN 0-7432-5221-7

Audio/visual media[edit]

  • Lost Evidence of the Pacific: The Battle of Leyte Gulf. History Channel. TV. No writer given.
  • Dogfights: Death of the Japanese Navy. History Channel. TV. No writer given.

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.