Ernest Ranglin, performing at WOMAD in the UK, in 2008
|Born||19 June 1932|
|Genres||Ska, rocksteady, reggae, jazz|
|Labels||Federal, Island, Studio One, MPS, Palm Pictures, Telarc, AIX|
|Associated acts||Clue J & His Blues Blasters, Prince Buster, The Skatalites, Ronnie Scott's House Band, Soul Vendors, Sound Dimension, Monty Alexander, Jimmy Cliff, St. Germain|
Ernest Ranglin OD (born 19 June 1932, Manchester, Jamaica) is a Jamaican guitarist and composer who established his career while working as a session guitarist and music director for various Jamaican record labels including Studio One and Island Records. Ranglin played guitar on many early ska recordings and helped create the rhythmic guitar style that defined the form. Ranglin has worked with Theophilus Beckford, Jimmy Cliff, Monty Alexander, Prince Buster, The Skatalites, Bob Marley and the Eric Deans Orchestra. He is noted for a chordal and rhythmic approach that blends jazz, mento and reggae with percussive guitar solos incorporating rhythm 'n' blues and jazz inflections.
Early life 
Ernest Ranglin was born in Manchester Parish, West Central Jamaica. His family moved to Kingston, where he attended the Providence Primary School, Kingston Senior School and Bodin College. Ranglin's introduction to music was through two uncles who both played guitar. Initially a self-taught guitarist; he received some tutoring on how to sight-read from a violin player named Tommy Tomlins. At the age of fifteen Ranglin joined the Val Bennett Orchestra, which was followed by a period of employment with the Eric Deans Orchestra. While performing locally with these orchestras Ranglin was introduced to the jazz pianist Monty Alexander, which led to a lifelong friendship as well as numerous musical collaborations.
During the 1950s Ranglin played guitar on calypso and mento releases some of which were recorded for the tourist market. The 1958 album The Wrigglers Sing Calypso at the Arawak is representative of the type of calypso floor show that Jamaican bands performed at hotels (some of the tracks from the original album were included on the 2010 CD release Jamaica - Mento 1951-1958). He was employed as a guitarist by the Jamaican Broadcasting Corporation between the years 1958 and 1965 with public radio broadcasting (radio services had been established earlier with the first broadcast transmitted in November 1939) commencing in 1959 and television broadcasting commencing in 1963. Ranglin also played with Cluett Johnson's studio band Clue J and the Blues Blasters; recording several tracks for Coxsone Dodd at Federal Studios, including the Theophilus Beckford hit "Easy Snapping" (recorded in 1956 and released in 1959), which he arranged and played guitar on. Ranglin also played on the Beckford tracks "Jack and Jill Shuffle" and "Shuffling Jug". In 1959 Chris Blackwell formed Island Records, and Lance Haywood At The Half Moon Hotel, Montego Bay, with Ranglin on guitar, became the first record to be released by the label.
In 1962 the James Bond film Dr. No was being filmed in Jamaica and Ranglin was hired by Carlos Malcolm (music director for the Jamaican Broadcasting Corporation) to compose music for some of the scenes set in Jamaica. Ranglin was also the bassist on many early Prince Buster hits including the 1963 ska release "Wash Wash"; a situation that arose from his contractual obligations to Federal Records which barred him from appearing as a named guitarist on recordings not made or licensed by them. In 1963 Ranglin played guitar on and arranged "My Boy Lollipop", which was sung by Millie Small, who had recently been signed to Blackwell's Island label. "My Boy Lollipop" (a cover version of a song written by Robert Spencer of the doo-wop group The Cadillacs and originally recorded by Barbie Gaye in 1956) became a world-wide hit after being released by Island on licence to Fontana in March 1964. Ranglin was also employed by Duke Reid as an A&R man for Reid's Treasure Isle label as well as fulfilling the same role for the labels Federal (owned and operated by Ken Khouri who recorded and produced Ranglin's 1965 Guitar in Ernest album) and Gay Feet. His solo releases during this period saw him return to his jazz roots with the albums Wranglin (1964) and Reflections (1965), both issued by Island. He was also involved with Merritone, a subsidiary record label started by Federal.
In 1964 Ranglin was in London with Blackwell, who was inquiring if it would be possible for Ranglin to play at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club. Initially the manager of Ronnie Scott's was reluctant to agree but eventually allowed Ranglin to sit-in with the house band. The reception the audience gave to his performance overcame any reservations that the manager may have had and Ranglin was invited to become the venue's resident guitarist. He stayed for nine months, backing numerous guest artists as well as appearing onstage with the Ronnie Scott Quartet and Quintet. In 1964 a live set was recorded at the club which was later released (1966) on the Fontana label as The Night Is Scott And You're So Swingable. Ranglin's tenure at Ronnie Scott's brought him to the attention of UK Jazz audiences with the Melody Maker′s readers duly voting Ranglin into first place in the guitar category of the paper's 1964 Reader's Jazz poll. Upon his return to Jamaica he found himself once again doing A&R and session work for Federal (musical director from 1965 to 1972) and Coxsone. He was involved in the recording of The Wailers' track "It Hurts to Be Alone" released on the Coxsone label in Jamaica and subsequently released in the UK (1965) by Island records. Ranglin was also music director for the recording of The Melodians' song "Rivers of Babylon" (1967). The closing years of the sixties found Ranglin working with the Jamaican producers Lee "Scratch" Perry and Clancy Eccles; both of whom were instrumental in developing and establishing the new genre of reggae. Ranglin played on the Eccles-produced "Say What You're Saying" (1967) by Eric "Monty" Morris, which he cites as one of the earliest records to feature reggae drumming.
1970s to present 
In 1973 Ranglin was awarded the Order of Distinction by the Jamaican government for his contribution to music. Ranglin frequently recorded Latin/Caribbean-infused jazz with Monty Alexander during this period, most notably the album Rass! (1974). Ranglin also toured with Jimmy Cliff in the dual role of music director/guitarist, which resulted in the 1976 album release In Concert: The Best of Jimmy Cliff. Ranglin was the lead guitarist on the Lee "Scratch" Perry recording sessions at Black Ark Studios for the Heart of the Congos (1977) album by the Congos.
In 1982 he moved to Florida, where he continued to record as well as taking the opportunity to perform more regularly at jazz festivals. In 1991 Ranglin's nephew Gary Crosby formed the group Jazz Jamaica; Ranglin and Jazz Jamaica performed together at Ronnie Scott's in October 2009 as part of the club's anniversary concert series. In 1998 he signed to Chris Blackwell's newly formed Palm Pictures label and released In Search of the Lost Riddim. That same year he played on "I Got Plenty 'o Nuthin" with Spearhead which was released on the Red Hot Organization compilation album Red Hot + Rhapsody. The albums E.B.@Noon and Modern Answers to Old Problems were released in 2000 followed by Grooving in 2001. In 2002 Ranglin was awarded an Honorary Doctorate Degree from the University of the West Indies for his outstanding contribution to the development of music in Jamaica. In 2006 he was the subject of a documentary Roots Of Reggae: The Ernest Ranglin Story produced and written by Arthur Gorson. In 2008 Ranglin was inducted into the Jamaican Music Hall of Fame by the Jamaica Association of Vintage Artistes and Affiliates (JAVAA).
Studio albums 
- Guitar in Ernest (1959) Island
- Wranglin' (1964) Island
- Reflections (1964) Island
- Guitar in Ernest (1965) Federal Records (different from 1958 Island version)
- The Exciting Ranglin (1966) Federal Records/RCA Victor
- Boss Reggae (1969) Federal Records
- Mr. Ranglin With Soul (196?) Federal Records/RCA Victor/Steady Records
- Softly With Ranglin (196?) Federal Records/Twilight Records/Merritone
- Today's Best (196?) Federal Records
- A Mod A Mod Ranglin (1970) Federal Records
- Ranglin Roots (1972)
- Ranglypso (1976) MPS
- Be What You Want to Be/From Kingston JA to Miami USA (1983) Konduko/Vista Sounds
- We Want to Party (1989) Rooney
- True Blue (1990) Rooney
- Play the Time Away (1996) Grove Records/Runn
- Below the Bassline (1996) Island Jamaica Jazz
- Memories of Barber Mack (1997) Island Jamaica Jazz
- Tribute to a Legend (1997) Kariang/K-Jazz
- In Search of the Lost Riddim (1998) Palm Pictures
- E.B.@Noon (2000) Tropic
- Modern Answers to Old Problems (2000) Telarc
- Grooving (2001) Blue Moon
- Gotcha! (2001) Telarc
- Alextown (2005) Palm Pictures
- Surfin' (2005) Telarc
- Order of Distinction (2006) Double-Side/Double Disc DVD Collectors Edition AIX Records
- Ranglin & Friends (2010) Dubtonic (download only)
- Avila (2012) Avila Street Records
Compilation albums and re-issues 
- Jamaica - Mento 1951-1958 (2010) (Frémeaux et Associés)
- Ranglin Roots (1976) Water Lily
- Sounds & Power (1996) Studio One
- Soul D'Ern: Recorded Live at Ronnie Scott’s Club (1997) Jazz House (recorded live circa 1964)
- Now is the Time: The Legendary MPS Sessions (1999) MPS/Verve
- Ultimate Ranglin Roots (2002) Tropic (remix/remaster of Ranglin Roots with additional songs)
- Ska Wey Dat (2003) Trojan (reissue of EB @ Noon with bonus live disc)
- Guitar in Ernest (2004) Dub Store (reissue of original 1965 Federal Records album)
Guest appearances 
- With Monty Norman: Dr. No (soundtrack) (1962) United Artists (wrongly credited to Byron Lee and the Dragonaires)
- With Don Drummond, Tommy McCook, et al.: Jazz Jamaica from the Workshop (1963) Studio One
- With Millie Small: My Boy Lollipop (1964) Island
- With The Melodians: Rivers of Babylon (1970) Trojan
- With Jimmy Cliff: In Concert (1976) Reprise
- With St. Germain: Tourist (2000) Blue Note
- With Charlie Hunter & Chinna Smith: Earth Tones (2005) Nature Sounds
With The Skatalites:
- Ska Boo-Da-Ba (1966) Top Deck
- African Roots/The Legendary Skatalites (1975/1976) United Artists
- Ball of Fire (1998) Island
With Monty Alexander:
- Rass! (1974) MPS
- Love and Sunshine (1975) MPS
- Unlimited Love (1976) MPS
- Cobilimbo (1977) MPS
- Jamento (1978) Pablo Records
- Estade (1979) MPS
- Just Friends (1980) MPS
- Monty Alexander — Ernest Ranglin (1981) MPS
- Rocksteady (2004) Telarc
- Larkin, Colin (ed.) (1998) The Virgin Encyclopedia of Reggae, Virgin Books, ISBN 0-7535-0242-9, p. 235.
- Ranglin Interview with Angus Taylor (11 February 2011). Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- Liane Hansen, "Monty Alexander and Ernest Ranglin - Jamaican Jazz Pianist, Guitarist Are Old Friends, Music Legends", Interview with NPR, 16 May 2004.
- Clarke, Ossie "Dr. Ernie Ranglin, I presume?", Jamaica Gleaner.
- "Christopher Porter, "Jazz to Ska Mania", JazzTimes, July/August 2004. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Jamaica - Mento 1951-1958 album.
- An English version of the Jamaica - Mento 1951-1958 CD booklet can be found here.
- Lou Gooden (1 October 2003). Reggae Heritage: Jamaica's Music History, Culture & Politic. AuthorHouse. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-1-4107-8062-1. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- John Williams, ""Ranglin's Roots - Interview with Ernest Ranglin" (1998). Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- Discogs: Lance Haywood at the Half Moon Hotel (1959). Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- Island Outpost: Biography of Chris Blackwell. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- Tim Perlich article (Now Magazine, August 2–9, 2007 - Vol. 26, No 48). Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Thompson, Dave (2002), Reggae & Caribbean Music, Backbeat Books, ISBN 0-87930-655-6, p. 144.
- Ronnie Scott discography. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Ankeny, Jason "Ernest Ranglin Biography", Allmusic, Macrovision Corporation
- Melody Maker Reader's Jazz Poll 1964 (Results published 20 February 1965). Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- 1976 album release In Concert: The Best of Jimmy Cliff. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- BBC Music - Review of Heart of the Congos by Lloyd Bradley (Published: 2012-08-16). Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- Discogs: Heart of the Congos (1977). Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Mike Collins, Interview with Ranglin (1999). Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- Barrow, Steve & Dalton, Peter (2004) The Rough Guide to Reggae, 3rd edn., Rough Guides, ISBN 1-84353-329-4, p. 50.
- "Ronnie Scott's Anniversary Concert Series - Jazz Jamaica feat. Ernest Ranglin". Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- About Palm Pictures. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- "UWI to confer honorary degrees on 11 this year", UWI Campus Publication St Augustine News - Issue July/September 2002. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Guitar great Ernie Ranglin on film", Jamaica Observer, 19 February 2007.
- FlashPoint Heather Henry, "Film Festival - Ernie Ranglin's musical genius immortalised", Jamaica Gleaner, 5 December 2006.
- Walters, Basil (2008) "JAVAA's first 12 inductees in Jamaica music hall of fame impressive", Jamaica Observer, 14 July 2008.