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Ernst Rüdin (April 19, 1874 – October 22, 1952), was a Swiss psychiatrist, geneticist and eugenicist. Rüdin was born in St. Gallen, Switzerland. He is known as one of the fathers[original research?] of racial hygiene.
Influenced in racial hygiene and Social Darwinism by his brother-in-law Alfred Ploetz, Rüdin started his career as a psychiatrist and developed the concept of "empirical genetic prognosis" of mental disorders. He published his initial results on the genetics of schizophrenia in 1916.
Rüdin was the director (1917–1945) of the Genealogical-Demographic Department at the German Institute for Psychiatric Research in Munich. He directed one of the first eugenics research institutes, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Genealogy in Munich, Germany. He also headed the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene [German Society for Racial Hygiene]; he was one of the first members of that organization to attempt to educate the public about the "dangers" of hereditary defectives and the value of the Nordic race as "culture creators".
His research was later supported with manpower and financial funding from the German National Socialists. After 1945, Rüdin's connections to the Nazis were a major reason for criticisms of psychiatric genocide in Germany.
Recognized as one of the fathers of National Socialist ideology, his work was endorsed officially by the Nazi Party. He wrote the official commentary for the racial policy of Nazi Germany: "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring"; and was awarded medals from the Nazis and Adolf Hitler personally.
In 1933, Ernst Rüdin, Alfred Ploetz, and several other experts on racial hygiene were brought together to form the Expert Committee on Questions of Population and Racial Policy under Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick. The committee's ideas were used as a scientific basis to justify the racial policy of Nazi Germany. The "Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring" was passed by the German government on January 1, 1934. Rüdin was interned in US 1945, but already released 1946, after Max Planck campaigned on his behalf.
"The significance of Rassenhygiene [racial hygiene] did not become evident to all aware Germans until the political activity of Adolf Hitler and only through his work has our 30-year long dream of translating Rassenhygiene into action finally become a reality."
"Whoever is not physically or mentally fit must not pass on his defects to his children. The state must take care that only the fit produce children. Conversely, it must be regarded as reprehensible to withhold healthy children from the state."--at a speech to the German Society for Rassenhygiene, quoting Hitler.
- Über die klinischen Formen der Gefängnisspsychosen, Diss. Zürich, 1901
- (Hrsg.) Studien über Vererbung und Entstehung geistiger Störungen, 1916-1939
- Psychiatrische Indikation zur Sterilisierung, 1929
- (Einl.) Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses vom 14. Juli 1933, 1934
- (Hrsg.) Erblehre und Rassenhygiene im völkischen Staat, 1934
- Die Bedeutung der Eugenik und Genetik für die Psychische Hygiene. Zeitschrift für psychische Hygiene 3 (1930), S. 133-147
- Ethnic cleansing
- T-4 Euthanasia Program
- Werner Heyde
- Werner Villinger
- The Gene Illusion
- Nazi doctors (list)
- "Aufgaben and Ziele der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene" Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie 28 (1934): pp. 228-29
- "The Science and Politics of Racial Research" by William Tucker. University of Illinois Press, 1994.
- "Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945)" MM. Weber, 2000
- "Program and practice of psychiatric genetics at the German Research Institute of Psychiatry under Ernst Rudin: on the relationship between science, politics and the concept of race before and after 1993" by V. Roelcke, 2002
- "Racial Hygiene" by Robert Proctor.
- Matthias M. Weber (1996). "Ernst Rüdin, 1874-1952: A German psychiatrist and geneticist". American Journal of Medical Genetics 67 (4): 323–331. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960726)67:4<323::AID-AJMG2>3.0.CO;2-N. PMID 8837697.
- Elliot S. Gershon (1997). "Ernst Rüdin, a Nazi psychiatrist and geneticist". American Journal of Medical Genetics 74 (4): 457–458. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19970725)74:4<457::AID-AJMG23>3.0.CO;2-G. PMID 9259388.
- Edith Zerbin-Rüdin, Kenneth S. Kendler (1996). "Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) and his genealogic-demographic department in Munich (1917-1986): An introduction to their family studies of schizophrenia". American Journal of Medical Genetics 67 (4): 332–337. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960726)67:4<332::AID-AJMG3>3.0.CO;2-O. PMID 8837698.
- Ernst Klee: Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Zweite aktualisierte Auflage, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 978-3-596-16048-8, S. 513.
- Torrey EF, Yolken RH (September 2009). "Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia". Schizophr Bull 36 (1): 26–32. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp097. PMC 2800142. PMID 19759092.
- Compare German Wikipedia