errno.h

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errno.h is a header file in the standard library of the C programming language. It defines macros for reporting and retrieving error conditions through error codes stored in a static memory location called errno (short for "error number").[1]

A value (the error number) is stored in errno by certain library functions when they detect errors. At program startup, the value stored is zero. Library functions store only values greater than zero. Any library function can alter the value stored before return, whether or not they detect errors. Most functions indicate that they detected an error by returning a special value, typically NULL for functions that return pointers, and −1 for functions that return integers. A few functions require the caller to preset errno to zero and test it afterwards to see if an error was detected.

The errno macro expands to an lvalue with type int or volatile int,[2] containing the last error code generated in any function using the errno facility.[1] Originally this was a static memory location, but macros are almost always used today to allow for multi-threading, such that each thread will see its own error number.

The header file also defines macros that expand to integer constants that represent the error codes. The C standard library only requires three to be defined:

EDOM

Results from a parameter outside a function's domain, for example sqrt(-1)

ERANGE

Results from a result outside a function's range, for example strtol("0xfffffffff",NULL,0)

EILSEQ [Required since 1994 Amendment 1 to C89 standard][3]

Results from an illegal byte sequence, for example mbstowcs(buf,"\xff", 1) (if the multi-byte encoding is UTF-8).

POSIX compliant operating systems like AIX, Linux or Solaris include many other error values, many of which are used much more often than the above ones, such as EACCES for when a file cannot be opened for reading.[4] Many of these symbols, and often the numeric values, are replicated on Windows.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b International Standard for Programming Language C (C99), ISO/IEC 9899:1999, p. 186
  2. ^ "Checking for Errors". The GNU C Library (glibc). GNU Project. 2014-02-08. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  3. ^ "A brief description of Normative Addendum 1". Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  4. ^ errno.h: system error numbers – Base Definitions Reference, The Single UNIX® Specification, Issue 7 from The Open Group

External links[edit]