Erwin Wilhelm Müller
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Erwin Wilhelm Müller (or Mueller) (June 13, 1911, in Berlin – May 17, 1977, in Washington D.C.) was a German physicist who invented the Field Emission Electron Microscope (FEEM), the Field Ion Microscope (FIM), and the Atom-Probe Field Ion Microscope. He was the first person to experimentally observe atoms.
Life and work
Müller studied at the Technical University in Berlin under Gustav Hertz. He received his degree in engineering in 1935 and his doctorate in 1936. Müller worked at the Siemens Research Laboratory, where he invented the field emission microscope in 1936 that allowed resolutions of 2 nanometers.
Müller married Klara Thüssing in 1939, and their only daughter Jutta was born in 1940. Due to the circumstances of war, he also worked at the Stabilovolt Company.
In 1947, he was appointed to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (renamed to Fritz-Haber-Institut on the occasion of its incorporation into the Max Planck Society in 1953) by Iwan N. Stranski. Here he developed the field ion microscope which, due to its resolution of 0.25 nm, was the first instrument used to observe atoms.
In 1950, he took a teaching appointment at the Technical University in Berlin after finally having completed the required Privatdozent (habilitation). In 1951, he became professor at the Free University Berlin.
- National Medal of Science (1977)
- Achievement Award of the Instrument Society of America (1960)
- Davisson-Germer Prize of the American Physical Society (1972)
- Carl Friedrich Gauß Medal (de:Carl-Friedrich-Gauß-Medaille) (1952)
- John Scott Medal of the City of Philadelphia (1970)
- External Scientific Member, Fritz-Haber-Institut (1957)
- Honorary Degree, Free University of Berlin (1968)
- Honorary Degree, University of Lyon
- Medard W. Welch Award 1971
- American Physical Society 1971
- Müller, E. W. (1951). "Das Feldionenmikroskop". Zeitschrift für Physik 131: 136–142. doi:10.1007/BF01329651. Müller's first FIM paper. According to Melmed, "[this paper] provided the world's first view of the atomic nature of solid matter and began an entirely new field of study."
- Müller, E. (1956). "Field Desorption". Physical Review 102 (3): 618. Bibcode:1956PhRv..102..618M. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.102.618.
- Müller, E.; Bahadur, K. (1956). "Field Ionization of Gases at a Metal Surface and the Resolution of the Field Ion Microscope". Physical Review 102 (3): 624. Bibcode:1956PhRv..102..624M. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.102.624.
- Muller, E. W. (1965). "Field Ion Microscopy". Science 149 (3684): 591–601. doi:10.1126/science.149.3684.591. JSTOR 1716643. PMID 17747566.
- Muller, E. W.; Rendulic, K. D. (1967). "Field Ion Microscopical Imaging of Biomolecules". Science 156 (3777): 961–963. doi:10.1126/science.156.3777.961. JSTOR 1721548. PMID 4290252.
- Mitch Jacoby, "Atomic Imaging Turns 50", Chemical & engineering News, 83:48, pp. 13–16, 28 November 2005
- Erwin Müller at Penn State
- Erwin Wilhelm Müller — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences