Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, commonly abbreviated ESA, an agent similar to the cytokine (erythropoietin) that stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoeisis). ESAs, structurally and biologically, are similar to naturally occurring protein erythropoietin.
- Erythropoietin (Epo)
- Epoetin alfa (Procrit/Epogen)
- Epoetin beta (NeoRecormon)
- Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp)
- Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera)
Physicians prescribe ESAs to maintain hemoglobin at the lowest level that both minimizes transfusions and best meets individual patient needs. Medical speciality professional organizations do not recommend the use of ESAs to chronic kidney disease patients who have hemoglobin levels greater than 10 g/dL and do not have anemia symptoms.
- Aapro, M. S.; Link, H. (2008). "September 2007 Update on EORTC Guidelines and Anemia Management with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents". The Oncologist 13: 33–36. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.13-S3-33. PMID 18458123.
- American Society of Nephrology, "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation (American Society of Nephrology), retrieved August 17, 2012
- Jenkins, John K. (2007-06-26). "Congressional Testimony: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESA)". News & Events. FDA. Retrieved 2010-02-25.