The eyalet was established in 1533. Early in 17th century, the eyalet was threatened by Iran and a revolt by the province governor Abaza Mehmed Pasha. This revolt was combined with Jelali Revolts (the uprising of the provincial musketeers called the Celali), backed by Iran and lasted until 1628.
It was one of the first Ottoman provinces to become a vilayet after an administrative reform in 1865, and by 1867 it had been reformed into the Erzurum Vilayet.
^Hakan Özoğlu (2005). Osmanlı devleti ve Kürt milliyetçiliği. Kitap Yayinevi Ltd. p. 77. ISBN978-975-6051-02-3. Retrieved 2013-06-26. "I. Süleyman 1566 yılında öldüğünde kısmen ya da tamamen Kürt bölgelerinden oluşturulan yeni eyaletler şunlardı: Dulkadir (1522), Erzurum (1533), Musul (1535), Bağdat (1535), Van (1548) ve Şehrizor (1554..."