Escaut is a département of the First French Empire in present Belgium and Netherlands. It is named after the river Scheldt (Escaut in French). It was formed in 1795, when the Southern Netherlands were annexed by France. Before the occupation, the territory was part of the county of Flanders and the United Provinces (Staats-Vlaanderen).
- Ghent, cantons: Deinze, Evergem, Ghent (4 cantons), Kruishoutem, Lochristi, Nazareth, Nevele, Oosterzele, Waarschoot and Zomergem.
- Dendermonde, cantons: Aalst (2 cantons), Beveren, Hamme, Lokeren, Sint-Gillis-Waas, Sint-Niklaas, Temse, Dendermonde, Wetteren and Zele.
- Eeklo, cantons: Assenede, Axel, Kaprijke, Eeklo, Sluis, Hulst, Oostburg and IJzendijke.
- Oudenaarde, cantons: Oudenaarde (2 cantons), Geraardsbergen, Herzele, Sint-Maria-Horebeke, Nederbrakel, Ninove, Ronse and Zottegem.
Its population in 1812 was 636,438, and its area was 357,000 hectares.
After Napoleon was defeated in 1814, the département became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its territory corresponds with the present Belgian province East Flanders and the Dutch region Zeeuws-Vlaanderen.