Eskimo–Aleut languages

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This article is about the Eskimo–Aleut language family. For discussion of the term "Eskimo", see Eskimo#Nomenclature.
Eskimo–Aleut
Eskaleut
Geographic
distribution:
Alaska, Canadian Arctic, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland, eastern Siberia
Linguistic classification: Eskimo–Aleut
Proto-language: Proto-Eskimo–Aleut
Proto-Eskimo
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-5: esx
Glottolog: eski1264[1]
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Eskimo–Aleut languages spoken in Alaska, Canada and Greenland

Eskimo–Aleut or Eskaleut is a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland, and the Chukchi Peninsula on the eastern tip of Siberia. It is also known as Eskaleutian, Eskaleutic,[2] or Inuit–Yupik-Unangan.[3]

The Eskimo–Aleut language family is divided into two branches, the Eskimo languages and the Aleut language.

The Aleut language family consists of a single language, Aleut, spoken in the Aleutian Islands and the Pribilof Islands. Aleut is divided into several dialects.

The Eskimo languages are divided into two branches, the Yupik languages, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska and in easternmost Siberia, and the Inuit language, spoken in northern Alaska, in Canada, and in Greenland. The Inuit language, which covers a huge range of territory, is divided into several dialects. Neighbouring dialects of Inuit are quite similar, although those at the farthest distances from the centre in the Diomede Islands and East Greenland are quite divergent.[4]

The proper place of one language, Sirenik, within the Eskimo family has not been settled. Some linguists list it as a branch of Yupik,[5] others as a separate branch of the Eskimo family, alongside Yupik and Inuit.[6]

The Alaska Native Language Center believes that the common ancestral language of the Eskimo languages and of Aleut divided into the Eskimo and Aleut branches at least 4000 years ago.[4][7] The Eskimo language family divided into the Yupik and Inuit branches around 1000 years ago.[7]

The Eskimo–Aleut languages are among the native languages of the Americas. This is a geographical category, not a linguistic one. The Eskimo–Aleut languages are not demonstrably related to the other language families of North America[7] and are believed to represent a separate, and the last, prehistoric migration of people from Asia.

Classification of the family[edit]

Eskimo–Aleut languages

Aleut
Western–Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60–80 speakers)
Eastern dialects: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers)
Eskimo languages (or Yupik–Inuit languages)
Yupik
Central Alaskan Yup'ik (10,000 speakers)
General Central Alaskan Yup’ik language (or Yugtun)
Chevak Cup’ik (or Cugtun)
Nunivak Cup'ig (or Cugtun)
Alutiiq or Pacific Gulf Yupik (400 speakers)
Central Siberian Yupik or Yuit (Chaplinon and St. Lawrence Island, 1,400 speakers)
Naukan (70 speakers)
Chaplinski
Sirenik (extinct) (viewed as an independent branch by some)
Inuit (98,000 speakers)
Inupiaq or Inupiat (northern Alaska, 3,500 speakers)
Qawiaraq (Seward Peninsula)
Inuvialuktun (western Canada, 765 speakers)
Kangiryuarmiutun (Ulukhaktok sometimes listed as Inuinnaqtun)
Siglitun (Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour, Tuktoyaktuk)
Uummarmiutun (Aklavik, Inuvik from Inupiaq)
Inuktitut (eastern Canada; together with Inuinnaqtun, 40,000 speakers)
Nunatsiavummiutut (Nunatsiavut, 550 speakers)
Inuttitut (Nunavik, 35,000 speakers)
Greenlandic (Greenland, 54,000 speakers)
Kalaallisut (West Greenlandic, 50,000 speakers)
Tunumiisut (East Greenlandic, 3,500 speakers)
Inuktun (Polar Eskimo, approx 1,000 speakers)

Position among the world's language families[edit]

Eskimo–Aleut does not have any genetic relationship to any of the world's other language families that is generally accepted by linguists at the present time. There is general agreement that it is not closely related to the other language families of North America. The more credible proposals on the external relations of Eskimo–Aleut all concern one or more of the language families of northern Eurasia, such as Chukchi–Kamchatkan just across the Bering Strait. One of the first such proposals was made by the pioneering Danish linguist Rasmus Rask in 1818, upon noticing similarities between Greenlandic Eskimo and Finnish. Perhaps the most fully developed such proposal to date is Michael Fortescue's Uralo-Siberian hypothesis, published in 1998. More recently Joseph Greenberg (2000–2002) suggested grouping Eskimo–Aleut with all of the language families of northern Eurasia, with the exception of Yeniseian, in a proposed language family called Eurasiatic. Such proposals are not generally accepted.

In the 1960s Swadesh suggested a connection with the Wakashan languages. This was picked up and expanded by Holst (2005).[8]

Notable features[edit]

The Eskimo–Aleut languages are affixally polysynthetic[9] and exclusively suffixing (with the exception of one prefix in Inuktitut which appears in demonstratives).

Every word must have only one root (free morpheme) always at the beginning.[10] Eskimo–Aleut languages have a relatively small number of roots – in the case of Central Alaskan Yup'ik around two thousand.[11] Following the root are a number of postbases, which are bound morphemes that add to the basic meaning of the root. If the meaning of the postbase is to be expressed alone, a special neutral root (in the case of Central Alaskan Yup'ik and Inuktitut pi) is used.

Following the postbases are non-lexical suffixes that indicate case on nouns and person and mood on verbs. The number of cases varies, with Aleut languages having a greatly reduced case system compared to Eskimo. The Eskimo languages are ergative–absolutive in nouns and in Yup'ik languages, also in verbal person marking. All Eskimo–Aleut languages have obligatory verbal agreement with agent and patient in transitive clauses, and there are special suffixes used for this purpose in subordinate clauses, which makes these languages, like most in the North Pacific, highly complement deranking.

At the end of a word there can be one of a small number of clitics with meanings such as "but" or indicating a polar interrogative.

Phonologically, the Eskimo–Aleut languages resemble other languages of northern North America and far eastern Siberia. There are usually only three vowels, a, i and u, though some Yup'ik dialects also have ə. All Eskimo-Aleut languages lack ejectives, which makes them areally akin to Northern Chukotko-Kamchatkan rather than such “Amerind” families as Na-Dene or Tsimshianic. Eskimo–Aleut languages possess voiceless plosives at the bilabial, coronal, velar and uvular positions in all languages except Aleut, which has lost the bilabial stops but retained the nasal. There are contrasting voiced and voiceless fricatives at the same positions, and in the Eskimo subfamily a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is also present. A rare feature of many dialects of Yup'ik and Aleut is contrasting voiceless nasals.

Vocabulary comparison[edit]

The following is a comparison of cognates among the basic vocabulary across the Eskimo–Aleut language family (about 60 words). Note that empty cells do not imply that a particular language is lacking a word to describe the concept, but rather that the word for the concept in that language is formed from another stem and is not a cognate with the other words in the row. Also, there may be shifts in the meaning from one language to another, and so the "common meaning" given is only approximate. In some cases the form given is found only in some dialects of the language. Forms are given in native Latin orthographies unless otherwise noted.

common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic
Persons
Human being (Shaman word's) taĝu taʁu tarex taghu taru taru tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau taa taa
(Grand)father adax̂/taatax̂ *ata *ata-ata ata ata ata aata ata/ava ata/ava aapa/taata aapa aapa/ata aappak/ataatak aappak ataata ataata ataata ataata ataata ataata ataata ataata ataataq alaala
Mother anax̂ *ana *ana-ana nana naa/ana aana aana aaga aaga aaka aaka aaka amaamak/aana amaamak/anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaanaq annivik
Son *iʁni-ʁ irnex ighneq irneq irneq irniq irniq irñiq irñiq irñiq irniq irniq irniq irniq irniq irniq irniq irniq innik irniq erneq irniq
Daughter *paniɣ panex panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik
Older brother (of female) huyux̂ *aNǝ-LГun anta aningak anngaq anngaq ani ani ani ani ani aniraaluk ani ani ani ani ani ani ani anik ani ani ani
Older sister (of male) uhngix *aleqa nuskit alqaq aɫqaq aliraq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqannaq angajuk angajuk angajuk aliqa aleqaq alara
Young brother (of female) kingii *nukaq ungjex uyughaq uyuwaq uyuraq nukaq nukaq nukaaluk nukaaluk nukaq nukaq nukaq nukaq mukaq nukaq nukaq nukaq nukaq nukak nukaq nukaq nukaq
Young sister (of male) uhngix *nayak najex nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak najak najak najak najak najaatsuk najak najak najak
Husband ugi *uɣi uga ugwik wik wii ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui uik ui ui uviq
Wife ayagax̂ *nuLiaq nucix nuliiq nuliq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliak nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq
Family/Relative ilaanux̂ *ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila
Man tayaĝux̂ *aŋu-nt angeta angun angun angun angun angun angun angun angun angun angun angut angut angut anguti anguti anguti angutik angut angut tikkaq
Woman ayaĝax̂ *aʁnaq arnax arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq annak arnaq arnaq nuliakkaaq
Boy hlax *aleqa nukeɫpegaẋ nukaɫpegaq nukaɫpiaq nukaɫpiaq nugatpiaq nugatpiaq nukatpiaq nukatpiaq nukatpiaq nukatpiraq nukatpiaq nukatpiaq nukatpiaq nukappiaq nukappiaq nukappiaq nukappiaq nukappiak nukappiaq nukappiraq nugappiaq
Girl ayaĝaadax̂ *nǝvi(a)ʁc(ǝɣ)a- náẋserráẋ neveghsaq neviarcaq niaqsaaʁruk niaqsiaʁruk niviaqsiaʁruk niviaqsiaʁruk niviakkaq niviaqsiraq niviaqhiaq niviaqhiaq niviakkiaq niviaqsiaq niviaqsaaq niviaqsiaq niviatsiaq niviatsiak niviarhiaq niviarsiaraq niiarsiaq
Person anĝaĝinax̂ *inguɣ jux yuk suk yuk/cuk inuk inuk iñuk iñuk iñuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk iik
Mother-in-law *caki saka saki caki cakiq sagi chagi saki saki hakigaq saki haki haki hakigaq saki saki saki saki sakik haki saki saqiq/sagiq
Personal pronouns I or me (singular) ting *vi menga hwanga w'iinga w'iinga wanga uanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvaqa uvak uanga uanga uara
all of two us (two) (dual) tingix *vik hwagakuk w'iingakuk w'iingakuk waguk uaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk
we or us/all of us (plural) tingin(s) *vit mengaketa hwagakuta w'iingakuta w'iingakuta wagut uagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uagut uagut uangit
you (singular) txin *ǝɫ-vǝn-t ɫpi ɫpet eɫpet eɫpet ivlin ilvin ilvich ilvich ilvik ilvit ilvit ivrit/itvin igvin/idvin igvit ivvit ivvit ivvit iffit ihhit/i'lit iɫɫit ittit
you two (dual) txidix *ǝɫ-ptek ɫpetek eɫpetek eɫpetek iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik ilissik ilittik ilittik ilittik
yourselves/all of you (plural) txichix *ǝɫ-vcet ɫpisi ɫpesi eɫpici eɫpeci ilipsi ilipsi ilivsi ilivsi iliffi ilipsi iliffi iliphi iliphi ilipsi ilissi ilitsi ilitsi ilitsi ilissi ilissi ilitsi
he/she/it ilaa/uda *ǝɫ-ŋa *una langa/una lnga/una elen/una elii/una ilaa/una ilaa/una ilaa/una ilaa/una ilaa/una ilaa/una una una una una una una una una una una una
thyself/themselves/itself ilaan(s)/udan(s) *ǝɫ-ŋat *ukuat langwi/uket lngit/ukut elita/ukut eliita/ukut ilaat/ugua ilaat/ugua ilaat/ukua ilaat/ukua ilaat/ukua ilaat/ukua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ugua/ukkua
I, me (affixes) -kuq *tua *kuq -jua -tua -tua -tua, -runga -runga -runga -runga -runga -yunga, -yuami -yunga -yunga -runga -yunga -junga -junga -junga -junga -junga -junga -punga,sunga -pua, lua
you (affixes) -kuxt *it -jet -ten -ten -ten -rutin -rutin -rutin -rutin -rutin -yutin -yutin -rutit -yutit -jutit -jutit -jutit -jutit -jutit -hutit -sutit -sulit
he/she/it (affixes) -kux *tuq -jix -tuq -tuq -tuq -ruq -ruq -ruq -ruq -ruq -yuaq -yuq -ruq -yuq -yuq -juq -juq -juq -juk -huq -soq, poq -tuq, puq
my (affixes) -ng *nga -ka/qa -ka/qa -ka/qa -ka/qa -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga -ga/ra -ga/ra -nga/ra
your (affixes) -n *in -n -n -n -n -n -n -n -n -n -n -t -t -t -t -it -it -it -it -t -t -t
his/her/its (affixes) -(n)gan *ngan -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a
he/she...her/him/it -kuu/qaa *jaa/kaa -jaa/kaa -taa/kaa -taa/kaa -taa/kaa -raa/gaa -raa/gaa -raa/gaa -raa/gaa -yaa/gaa -yaa/gaa -raa/gaa -yaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -saa/gaa -laa/ngaa
Who (Interrogate) kiin *kina kiin kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kia
What (Interrogate) alqux *caŋu sangǝ̄́ca sangwa/suna cacaq cacaq/tcauna suna sua sua suna/suva huna suna huna huna huna suna kisu suna suna suna kihu suna/sua kisik
Why (Interrogate) alqul(-usaal) *caŋu sangaami sangami cin/caluni ciin/caluni suami suami summan/suvataa summan/suvataa huuq suuq huuq huuq huuq suuq suuq sungmat sumut summat huuq suuq suuq
Where (Interrogate) qaataa *nani nani nani/naa/sami nama/nani nani/cami naung/nani naunga/nani sumi/nani/naung sumi/nani/naung humi/nani/nau sumi/nani/naung humi/nani/naung humi/naung nani/naung sumi/nauk nani/nauk nami/nani nami/nani nami/nani humi sumi sumi
When (Past/future) (Interrogate) qanaayam *qanga/qaku qanga/qaku qavnga/kaku qangwaq/qaku qangvaq/qaku qanga/qagun qanga/qagu qaglaan/qaku qanga/qaku qanga/qaku qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu kanga/kakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qaqugu qanga/qara
How (Interrogate) alqutal *qanuq qanex qayuq qayuq qayuq/cangstun qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq qanuq kanuk qanuq qanoq qaniq
Body parts Chin tsamlu *tsamlu tamla tamlu tamluq tamlu tavlu tavluq tavlu tavlu tavlu tablu tablu tablu tablu tablu tallu tallu tallu talluk taddu taɫɫu tattuq
Heart kanuux̂ *uŋ-uma- ungevata unguvan unguwan unguvan uumman uumman uumman uumman uumman uumman uumman uummat uummat uummat uummati uummati uummati uummatik uummat uummat iimmat
Blood aamaaxs *aruɣ acex/arux awk auk auk awk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk aak aak
Head kamĝix̂ *ńarǝ-qu- iiceqeẋ naasquq/nayquq nasquq nacquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niakuk niaquq niaqoq suuniq
Hair iimlix *ńujaq nujǝẋ/jujǝẋ nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nujaq nujaq nujaq nujaq nujak nujaq nujaq nujaq
Eye dax̂ *irǝ eca iya ii/iingaq ii/iingaq izi izi iri iri iyi iyi iyi iri iyi iji iji iji iji ijik ihi isi ili
Eyelash dam qaxsaa *qǝmǝʁja- qemerjax/seqpix qemeryaq/siqpik qemeryaq/ciqpik qemeryaq/ciqpek qimiriaq/siqpiq qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik kimigiak/sippik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimeriaq/serpik qimiiaq/sirpik
Ear tutusix̂ *ciɣunt siigeta sigun cuun ciun siun siun siun siun hiun siun hiun hiut hiut siut siuti siuti siuti siutik hiut siut siit/*tusaat
Nose angusix̂ *qǝŋa- qengax qengaq qengaq qengaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq kingak qingaq qingaq qingaq
Arm chuyux̂ *taɫi- jaqex taɫiq taɫiq taɫiq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq talik taliq taleq taliq
Hand chax̂ *arɣa ácxeẋ aykaq aikaq aikaq agrak agraq argak argak argak adjgak *aygak algak argak adjgak aggak aggak aggak aggak aggak aghak assak attak
Finger atx̂ux̂ *ińura- nurax yughaq suaraq yuaraq inugaq inugaq iñugaq iñugaq iñugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugak inugaq inuaq iiaq
Fingernail *kikra kiikiak kigiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kigiak
Belly xax *aqja aqii aqyaq aqsaq aqsaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq akiak aqiaq aqajaq ariaq
Navel qiihliqdax̂ *qacaɫǝʁ qaɫasex qasaɫeq qaɫaciq qaɫaciq qalaziq qalachiq qalasriq qalasiq qalahiq qalasiq qalahiq qalahiq qalahiq qalasiq qalasiq qalasiq qalasiq kalasik qalahiq qalaseq
Knee chidiĝix *ciɣǝr-qu sigesqeẋ serquq cisquq ciisquq siitquq siitquq siitquq siitquq hiitquq siitquq hiitquq hiitquq hiitquq siiqquq siiqquq siiqquq siirquq siikkuk hiiqquq siiqqoq
Calf tugaadix̂ *nakacuɣ-na- nakasegnax nakasugnaq nakacugnaq nakacugnaq nakasungnaq nakasungnaq nakasrungnaq nakasungnaq nakahungnaq nakasungnaq nakahungnaq nakahungnaq nakahungnaq nakasungnaq nakasungnaq nakasunnaq nakasunnaq nakasunnak nakahungnaq nakasunnaaq
Foot kitax̂ *itǝɣ-(a-) ítegá itegaq itaq itgaq itigak itigaq isigak isigak ihigak itigak itigak ihigak itigak itigak isigak itigak itigak itigak ihigak isigak
Anus idiĝasix̂ *ǝtǝʁ tex eteq eteq teq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itik itiq iteq iliq? *kiaavik
Animals Caribou itx̂aygix̂ *tuŋtu tumta tungtu tuntu tuntu tuttu tuttu tuttu tuttu tuttu tuktu tuktu tuktu tuktu tuktu tuktu tuttu tuttu tuttuk tuktu tuttu tuttuq
Swan qukingix̂ *quɣruɣ qerúmɫeráẋ quuk qugyuq qugyuq qugruk qugruk qugruk qugruk qugruk qugyuk qugyuk qugyuk qugyuk qugjuk qugjuk qujjuk qujjuk kutjuk qughuk qussuk qutsuk
Canada Goose laĝix̂ *lǝqlǝʁ leẋɫeẋ leghɫeq neqɫeq neqɫeq lirliq lirliq lirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq lirliq/nirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq nillik nirliq nerɫeq nirtiq
Killer Whale aglux̂ *aʁɫuɣ arɫux? arɫuk aqɫuk arɫuk aarlu aarlu aarlu aarlu aarlu aarlu aarlu aarluk aarluk aarluk aarluk aarluk aarluk aalluk aarluk aarɫuk aartiq?
Groundhog/Arctic squirrel sixsix *sigsik siksix sikik cikik cikik siksrik chiksrik siksrik siksrik siksrik siksik hikhik hiksik hikhik siksik siksi sitsik sitsik sitsik highik sissi sitsiq
Ptarmigan aĝdiikax̂ *aqărɣiʁ aqergex aqargiiq/aqarriq aqasgiiq aqazgiiq arargiq arargiq aqargiq aqargiq aqaygiq aqiygiq aqilgiq aqirgiq/aqigriq aqidjgiq aqiggiq aqiggiq aqiggiq aqiggiq akiggik aqighiq aqisseq nagalaraq
Oldsquaw Duck aagix̂ *aXaŋǝ-liʁ aahaangalex aahaangwliq ahangkiluk aahaangiiq/aahaaliq aa'aangiq aa'aangiq aahaaliq aahaaliq ahaangiq ahaangiq aahaalliq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangik ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq
Bowhead whale/whale alax̂ *aʁvǝʁ arvex arveq arweq/arruq arveq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq avvik arviq arfeq arpiq
Dog sabaakax̂ *qikmi- qepeneẋ qikmiq qiqmiq/piugta qimugta qimmiq qimmiq qipmiq qimmiq qimmiq qimmiq qinmiq qingmiq/qimmiq qingmiq/qimmiq qimmiq qimmiq qimmiq qimmiq kimmik qimmiq qimmeq qimmiq
Fish qax̂ *ǝqaɫuɣ iqeɫex iqaɫuk iqaɫuk iqaɫuk iraluk iraluk iqaluk iqaluk qaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk ikaluk iqaluk eqaluk iqalik
Louse kitux̂ *kumaɣ kúmex kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak
Other nouns Atmosphere/weather/out silan/slax̂ *cǝla siɫa sɫaa ɫa ciɫa/ella sila chila sila sila hila sila hila hila hila sila sila sila sila sila hila sila sila
Yes aang *aa/ii ii ii ii-i ii-i ii-i ii-i ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii aap ii
No nangaa *naaka *qaanga naaka naka/naah kaa ina/qanga naami/naagga qanngaq/naagga naumi/naakka naumi/naagga naggai naaggai imannaq iiq/naagga naung/naagga nauk/aakka aakka/naagga aukka/aggaq naggai/nauk aukang na'a/naagga naami/naagga iiqqii
House ulax̂ *ǝŋlu lu inglu englu englu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu illu illu illuk iglu iɫɫu ittiq
Tent pulaatxix̂ *tupǝʁ tupex tupeq tuviq tuviq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupik tupiq tupeq tupiq
To ask ahmat- *apete apet- apetaqa- apqar- apete- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apigi- apiri- aperi- apii-
Tell a Story/Legend uniikal *uniɣ-paʁ- unircex ungikpaq unifkuaq unifkaraq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unikkaaq unikkaaq unikkaaq unikkaak unikkaaq unikkaaq unikkaaq
Cry/weep qidal *qiRă- qeje qeya qia qeya qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia kia qia qia qia
Arrow *qaʁru qarceẋ ruuq ruuq qeruq qarruq qarruq qarruq qarruq qarruq qaryuq qaryuq qaryuq qaryuq qarjuq qarjuq qarjuk qajjuk katjuk qarhuq qarsoq qarliq
Snow(flake) qaniigix̂ *qaniɣ qanix qanik qanik qaniq qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik kanik qanik qanik qanik
Price/Value akiisal *aki aka aki aki aki aki aki agi agi aki aki aki aki aki aki aki aki aki aki akik aki agiq
Hungry haagil *kajak kajex keek kaik kaik kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak
Cook unagix̂ *ǝɣa ega ega ega ega iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga ega inga
Smoke huyux̂s *puju pujex puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq pujuq pujuq pujuq pujuq pujuk pujuq pujuq pujuq
Ash utxix̂ *aʁra arex aʁra araq araq arra arra arra arra arra arya arya arya arya arja arja arja ajja atjak arhaq arsaq arlaq
Wind achunal *anuqǝ anuqa anuqa anuqa anuqa anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anugik anuri anori anirsiq
Breath angil *anǝʁ- anerte- anernaq anerneq anerneq anirniq anirniq aniqniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq aninnik anirniq anerneq anirniq
Name asax̂ *atǝʁ atex ateq ateq ateq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atik atiq ateq aliq
Load husix̂ *uci usa usi uci uci uzi uchi usri usi uhi usi uhi uhi uhi usi usi usi usi usik uhi usi usi
Water taangax̂ *ǝmǝʁ mex emeq meq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imik imiq imeq imiq
Fire qignal *ǝknǝ- ekn'ex ekneq keneq keneq ikniq itniq ikniq igniq ingniq ingniq ingniq ingniq ingniq ingniq ingniq inniq inniq innik ingniq inneq igivattattiq
To urinate qaalux̂ **quʁ(r)ǝ- qux-teqex uraquq qure- qure- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- kui- qui- qui- quvi-
Ship, boat ayxaasix̂ *umi(r)a umax umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiak umiaq umiaq umiaq
Lake hanix̂ *taci-ʁ jajvex nayvaq nanwaq nanvaq navraq/teziq navraq/tachiq narvaq/tasriq narvaq/tasiq narvaq/tahiq nayvaq/tasiq nalvaq/tahiq narvaq/tahiq nagvaq/tahiq navvaq/tasiq navvaq/tasiq navvaq/tasiq navvaq/tasiq navvak/tasik nassak/tahiq nassak/taseq nattak/tasiq
Sun/Day aĝadĝix̂ *ciqi-nǝʁ siqinex siqineq/mazaq ciqineq/masaq ciqineq/macaq siriniq/mazaq chiqiniq/machaq siqiñiq/masaq siqiñiq hiqiñiq siqiniq hiqiniq hiqiniq hiqiniq siqiniq siqiniq siqiniq siqiniq sikinik hiqiniq seqineq siirliq
Cloud *nụvǝja nuiya nuwiya nuviya nuviya nuvuya nuvuya nuvuya nuvuya nuvuya nuvuja nuvujaq nuvujaq nuvujaq nuvujak nuvujaq nuiaq nuviaq
Star sdax̂ *umluria uvluriaq uvluriaq uvluriaq uvluriaq uvluriaq ubluriaq ubluriaq ubluriaq ubluriaq ubluriaq ulluriaq ulluriaq ulluriaq ullugiak ulluriaq ulloriaq utturiaq
Earth tanax̂ *luna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna
Hilltop qayax̂ *qemi qemix qemiq qemiq qemiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq kimik qimiq qimeq qimiq
Tree/Wood *napar- napax napartuq napaq napa napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtiq napaattuq napaattuk uqpik/napaaqtuq urpik/napaartoq urpik/napaartuq
Dog barking qihlux *qiluɣ qelux qilugaq qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk kiluk qiluk qiluk qiliilaq
And/also ama *amma ama/sama amahwa/aamta amleq/cama amleq/cama amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma aamma aamma
Shaman qugaaĝix̂ *aŋalku- angekex angaɫkuq angaɫquq angaɫkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angakkuq angakkuq angakkuq angakkuq angakkuk angakkuq angakkoq angakkiq
Sky inix̂ *qilaɣ qilex qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak kilak qilak qilak qilak
Kiss on nose/kiss qingul *kungik singeq singaq(-ghaqaa) cingaq cingaq kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik
Feather haka *culuk silek siluk culuk culuk suluk chuluk suluk suluk huluk suluk huluk huluk huluk suluk suluk suluk suluk suluk huluk suluk siik
Milk mulukax *emug, itug ituk/emunge ituk/emuk muk ituk immuk immuk immuk immuk ituk miluk miluk ituk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk
Here it is! wa *uva hwa hwa w'a w'a uvvaa uvvaa uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uhha uffa uppa
Kayak iqyaq *qyaq qajax qayaq qayaq qayaq qayaq qayaq qayaq qayaq qayaq qayavialuk qayaq qayaq qayaq qajaq qajaq qajaq qajaq kajak qajaq qajaq saqqit
Adjectives Cold! Brrr! How cold! ababa *alaapaa alaapa alaappa alaappa alaappa alaappa alaappa alaappa alaappa ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii
Still/also/more ahlii *culi sali salin cali cali suli chuli suli suli huli suli huli huli huli suli suli suli suli suli huli suli suli
Swell hums *puvet puvceqertéẋ puuvaaquq puge- puve- puit- puit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puik- puiq-
Long adul *takǝ(v) takevaláẋ taakǝlʁi takequq takequq tagiruq tagiruq takiruq takiruq takiruq takiyuq takiyuq takiyuq takiyuq takijuq takijuq takijuq takijuq takijuk takihuuq takisooq/takivoq tagiliq
Fat ignatul *quvi quginaẋ quginaq quili quvinaq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq kuinik quiniq quineq quiniq
White quhmax̂ *qătǝ-ʁ qetex qeteq qeteq qeter- qatiq qatiq qatiq qatiq qatiq qatiq qakuqtaq qaquqtaq qakuqtaq qakuqtaq qakuqtaq qakuqtaq qakutaq kakuttak qakuqtuq qaqortoq qaartiq
Grey hair qidaayux *qirʁǝʁ qircéreɫeẋ qiiq qiiq qiiq qiʁriq qirʁiq qirʁiq qirʁi qirʁiq qiyriq qiiq qiriq qiiq qiiq qiiq qiiq qiiq kiik qiiq qeeq qiiq
Copper kanuuyax̂ **kanɣu-ja kanuje kanuya kanuyaq kanuyaq kannuuyaq kannuyaq kannuyaq kannguyaq kannuyaq kannuyaq kannuyaq kannuyaq kanuhaq kannujaq kannujaq kannujaq kanusaq kannujak kannussaq kanngussak kanngutsak
Numbers 1 ataqan *ataʁu-ci- ateresex ataaziq atauciq/atuusiq atauciq atausiq atauchiq atausriq atausiq atauhiq atausiq atauhiq atauhiq atauhiq atausiq atausiq atausiq atausiq atausik atauhiq ataaseq alaasiq
2 aalax̂ *malǝʁu- malrug malghuk malluk malruk marluuk marluk malruk malruk malruk malruk malruuk malruuk malruuk marruuk marruuk marruuk maqruuk magguuk marluk marluk martut
3 qankun(-s) *pingajunt pingejug pingayut pingaun pingayun pingasut pingachut piñgasrut piñgasut piñgahut pingasut pingahut pingahut pingahut pingasut pingasut pingasut pingasut pingasut pingahut pingasut pingasit
4 siiching *cǝtama- sitamij sitamat staamat cetaman sitaman chitaman sisaman sisaman hihaman sitaman hitaman hihamat hitamat sitamat tisamat sitamat sitamat sitamat hihamat sisamat siamat
5 chaang *taɫiman tasímengíyi taɫimat taɫiman taɫiman tauliman taliman talliman talliman talliman talliman talliman tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat taddimat tallimat tattimat
6 atuung *aʁvinelegh inglex aghvínelek arwinlgen arvinglegen arwinilik arwinilik itchaksrat itchaksat itchakhat arvinillik arvinillik arviniq arvinraq arviniqtut arviniliit pingasuujuqtut pingasuujurtut pingasuujuttut arhiniddit arfinillit arpiniit
10 hatix̂ *qulǝ(ŋ) qulex? qula qulin qula qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit kulit qulit qulit qutit
Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Eskimo–Aleut". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Cf. Fleming 1987:189.
  3. ^ "Due to the pejorative nature of the term 'Eskimo' in some locales, and the increasing preference for 'Unangan' as opposed to 'Aleut' in Alaska, this family may be alternately referred to as Inuit-Yupik-Unangan. The hyphenated term gives some sense of the variety of languages subsumed under this family label." Holton, Gary. 2012. Overview of Comparative Inuit-Yupik-Unangan. Retrieved 2013-11-18.
  4. ^ a b Kaplan, Lawrence (1984). McGary, Jane, ed. Inupiaq and the Schools - A Handbook for Teachers. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. 
  5. ^ "Ethnologue report for Yupik Sirenk", Ethnologue, Retrieved 2008-08-25.
  6. ^ "Alaska Native Languages – An Overview". Retrieved 2008-08-25.
  7. ^ a b c Jacobson, Steven (1984). Central Yupik and the Schools - A Handbook for Teachers. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. 
  8. ^ Jan Henrik Holst, Einführung in die eskimo-aleutischen Sprachen. Buske Verlag
  9. ^ Mattissen, Johanna, "Ontology and Diachrony of Polysynthesis". In: Wunderlich, Dieter, Advances in the Theory of the Lexicon pp. 291–294. ISBN 3-11-019019-2
  10. ^ Mattissen, Johanna. Dependent–Head Synthesis in Nivkh: A Contribution to a Typology of Polysynthesis p. 282. ISBN 90-272-2965-1
  11. ^ Garry, Jane and Rubino, Carl R. Galvez, Facts about the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages pp. 842–844. ISBN 0-8242-0970-2

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bernet, John W. 1974. An Anthology of Aleut, Eskimo, and Indian Literature of Alaska in English Translation. Fairbanks, Alaska.
  • Conference on Eskimo Linguistics, and Eric P. Hamp. 1976. Papers on Eskimo and Aleut Linguistics. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
  • Dumond, Don E. 1965. On Eskaleutian Linguistics, Archaeology, and Prehistory.
  • Fleming, Harold C. 1987. "Towards a definitive classification of the world's languages." Diachronica 4.1/2:159-223.
  • Fortescue, Michael D. 1984. Some Problems Concerning the Correlation and Reconstruction of Eskimo and Aleut Mood Markers. København: Institut for Eskimologi, Københavns Universitet. ISBN 87-87874-10-5
  • Fortescue, Michael D., Steven A. Jacobson, and Lawrence D. Kaplan. 1994. Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. ISBN 1-55500-051-7
  • Fortescue, Michael. 1998. Language Relations across Bering Strait: Reappraising the Archaeological and Linguistic Evidence. London and New York: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-70330-3
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 2000. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family, Volume 1: Grammar. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 2002. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family, Volume 2: Lexicon. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Holst, Jan Henrik 2005. Einführung in die eskimo-aleutischen Sprachen. Hamburg: Buske.
  • Marsh, Gordon H. 1956. The Linguistic Divisions of the Eskimo–Aleut Stock.
  • Swift, Mary D. 2004. Time in Child Inuktitut: A Developmental Study of an Eskimo–Aleut Language. Studies on Language Acquisition 24. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-018120-7

External links[edit]