Alice Bailey

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Alice Ann Bailey (June 16, 1880 – December 15, 1949) was a writer and theosophist in occult teachings, esoteric psychology and healing, astrological and other philosophic and religious themes. Bailey was born as Alice LaTrobe Bateman, in Manchester, England.[1] She moved to the United States in 1907, where she spent most of her life as a writer and teacher.

Bailey's works, written between 1919 and 1949, describe a wide-ranging system of esoteric thought covering such topics as how spirituality relates to the solar system, meditation, healing, spiritual psychology, the destiny of nations, and prescriptions for society in general. She described the majority of her work as having been telepathically dictated to her by a Master of Wisdom, initially referred to only as "the Tibetan" or by the initials "D.K.", later identified as Djwal Khul.[2] Her writings were of the same nature as those of Madame Blavatsky and are known as the Ageless Wisdom Teachings. Though Bailey's writings differ from the orthodox Theosophy of Madame Blavatsky, they have much in common with it. She wrote about religious themes, including Christianity, though her writings are fundamentally different from many aspects of Christianity and of other orthodox religions. Her vision of a unified society includes a global "spirit of religion" different from traditional religious forms and including the concept of the Age of Aquarius.[3][4]

Biography[edit]

Childhood and early life[edit]

Bailey was born to a wealthy aristocratic British family and, as a member of the Anglican Church, received a thorough Christian education.[5]

At age 15, on June 30, 1895, Bailey was visited by a stranger, "...a tall man, dressed in European clothes and wearing a turban" who told her she needed to develop self-control to prepare for certain work planned for her to do.[6]

At age 22 Bailey did evangelical work in connection with the YMCA and the British Army.[7] This took her to India where, in 1907, she met her future husband, Walter Evans. Together they moved to America where Evans became an Episcopalian priest.[8] The marriage did not last and Bailey pushed for and received a divorce. She left with their three children after formal separation in 1915. Then followed a difficult period in which she worked as a factory worker to support herself and the children.[6][9]

With the Theosophical Society[edit]

Bailey discovered the Theosophical Society and the work of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. The Theosophical Society states that Bailey became involved in 1917.[10] Theosophist Joy Mills states that in 1918 she became a member of the Esoteric Section of the society.[11] Theosophist Bruce F. Campbell notes, "She quickly rose to a position of influence in the American Section of the Adyar society, moving to its headquarters at Krotona in Hollywood. She became editor of its magazine, The Messenger, and member of the committee responsible for Krotona."[12]

Second marriage[edit]

In 1919, Foster Bailey (1888–1977), who was to be her second husband, became National Secretary of the Theosophical Society. They married in 1921.[13]

The Theosophist published the first few chapters of her first work, Initiation, Human and Solar, but then stopped for reasons Bailey called "theosophical jealousy and reactionary attitude."[14] Bailey "objected to the 'neo-Theosophy' of Annie Besant" and worked with Foster Bailey to gain more power in the American Section.[14] According to Theosophist Josephine Maria Davies Ransom, she became part of a progressive "Back to Blavatsky movement, led mainly by Mr. and Mrs. Foster Bailey".[15] She outlined her vision for the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society, however, her efforts to influence the society failed, and she and her husband were dismissed from their positions.[16]

According to historian of religion Olav Hammer, Bailey's early writings of communications with the Tibetan were well received within the society, but society president Annie Besant questioned Bailey's claims of communications with "the Tibetan" and allowed the Baileys to be expelled from the organization.[17] According to Bailey, she had come to see the society as authoritarian and involved with "lower psychic phenomena."[6]

The Arcane School, Lucifer Publishing Company, and Lucis Trust[edit]

Main article: Lucis Trust

According to the Lucis Trust website, the Baileys founded a quarterly magazine of esoteric philosophy titled The Beacon in 1922.[18]

Alice and Foster Bailey founded a publishing company which may have been named after the name of the Theosophical Society's original magazine "Lucifer". Their new publishing venture which released the books Initiation, Solar and Human and other early volumes was initially incorporated as and known as "Lucifer Publishing Co." The next year, they changed that name to "Lucis Publishing Co."[19] In 1923, with the help of Foster Bailey, Alice Bailey founded the Arcane School (part of Lucis Trust), which gave (and still gives) a series of correspondence courses based on her writings.

Bailey continued to work up to the time of her death in 1949.[20]

Writing[edit]

The Seven Rays of energy[edit]

The concept of the seven rays can be found in Theosophical works.[21] Campbell writes that Bailey, "...was the first to develop the idea of the seven rays, although it can be found in germ in earlier Theosophical writings."[22] The seven rays also appear in Hindu religious philosophy.[23][24]

Esoteric astrology[edit]

Esoteric astrology is based on Alice Bailey's "Ageless Wisdom" teachings, which she said were relayed by her Tibetan Master Djwhal Khul.[25][26]

The esoteric astrologers who follow the teachings of Bailey typically base their work on her five-volume Treatise on the Seven Rays, particularly volume three which focuses on astrology.[27]

Esoteric Healing[edit]

The constitution of man[edit]

In line with previous Theosophical teachings,[28] Bailey taught that man consists of a soul of abstract mental material, working through a personality—a technical term for the physical, emotional, and less-abstract mental bodies considered holistically.[29][30] She uses traditional terms for these lower three "vehicles" or "sheaths": physical body, astral body and mental body. There is also the etheric body which directly corresponds to the physical but is the vital energizing agent for the whole of a man in all his forms of expression. These auric aspects of the human being are defined as partial emanations or expressions of the soul, which is itself synonymous with the evolving human consciousness. The mind is not conceived to be simply an ephemeral brain effect, but as the motivating energy responsible for the inner constitution of individuals, and which also manifest as the aura.[31]

For Bailey, the evolution of humanity was intimately bound up with its relationship to this Spiritual Hierarchy. She believed that the influences of religions, philosophies, sciences, educational movements, and human culture in general are the result of this relationship.[32]

The Great Invocation[edit]

The Great Invocation is a mantra given in 1937 by Bailey. The mantra begins with "From the point of Light within the Mind of God, let light stream forth into the minds of men." with the rest of the passage reinforcing this idea of men acting in accordance with the plan of God. It is well known by some followers of the New Age movement, where it is used as part of meditation, particularly in groups.[33]

The invocation has been used in the Findhorn Foundation community since the 1970s. In response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the Great Invocation was used as a central element of a new daily program at Findhorn known as the "Network of Light meditations for peace".[34] Findhorn's use of the Great Invocation later spun off to various other groups they had influenced, including groups interested in new age UFO philosophies.[35][36]

Rosemary Keller described the Great Invocation as a call for "the Christ to return to Earth" and wrote that Bailey-related groups purchased radio and television time to broadcast the invocation as part of their mission, and that often the invocation was recited in what Keller called "light groups", to accomplish what Bailey's disciples considered to be attracting and focusing "spiritual energies to benefit the planet".[6] Researcher Hannah Newman described what she found to be an antisemitic element in the Great Invocation. According to Newman, "the Plan" named in the invocation refers to the plan authored by "the Hierarchy", that Newman states places "high priority on removing all Jewish presence and influence from human consciousness, a goal to be achieved by eliminating Judaism."[37]

Discipleship and service[edit]

Bailey's writing downplayed the traditional devotional and aspirational aspects of the spiritual life, in favor of serving "the Plan of the Hierarchy" by serving humanity.[38]

Unity and divinity of nations and groups[edit]

Ross describes Bailey's teachings as emphasizing the "underlying unity of all forms of life", and the "essential oneness of all religions, of all departments of science, and of all the philosophies".[39] Campbell notes that the New Group of World Servers was established for ". . . promotion of international understanding, economic sharing, and religious unity".[22]

Comparison with Theosophy[edit]

Theosophists are divided on their assessment of Alice Bailey's writings. For instance, the noted contemporary Theosophical writer Geoffrey Hodson wrote a highly favorable review of one her books, saying, "Once more Alice Bailey has placed occult students in her debt."[40] Olav Hammer writes, "Her first book, Initiation Human and Solar, was at first favorably received by her fellow theosophists. Soon, however, her claims to be recipient of ageless wisdom from the Masters met with opposition."[41] The conflict is understandable since her works contain some criticisms of Theosophy, and at the time of the break she voiced her criticism of what she saw as dogmatic structures within the society, while questioning the pledges of loyalty to Theosophical leaders that were required. "During the annual convention of 1920 in Chicago, there was a power struggle between forces loyal to Besant and the Esoteric Section and others who believed that the ES had become too powerful. Below the surface was a hidden controversy regarding Alice's work with the Tibetan."[8] For a more recent example of Bailey/Theosophy division, see Theosophy in Scandinavia.

Campbell writes that Bailey's books are a reworking of major Theosophical themes, with some distinctive emphases, and that they present a comprehensive system of esoteric science and occult philosophy, cognizant of contemporary social and political developments.[42] Steven J. Sutcliffe points out that both Bailey and Blavatsky's work evoke a picture of Tibet as the spiritual home of the Masters and that Bailey claimed a more-or-less direct lineage to Blavatsky. He describes Bailey as a 'post-Theosophical' theorist, reporting that Bailey received instruction from "former personal pupils of Blavatsky" and notes that her third book (A Treatise on Cosmic Fire) not only reproduces Blavatsky's apocryphal Stanzas of Dzyan but is dedicated to Blavatsky, as well.[43]

Jon Klimo, in Investigations on Receiving Information from Paranormal Sources, writes, "As with Blavatsky/Theosophical material, and more recent contemporary channeled material from other sources, we find in the Bailey work the same occult cosmological hierarchy: physical, etheric, astral, mental, causal, and higher inhabited levels of existence."[44] Olav Hammer, in the book Claiming Knowledge: Strategies of Epistemology from Theosophy to the New Age, highlights Bailey's Theosophical similarities as well as noting what he thinks are some differences between them: "To a large extent, Bailey's teachings are a restatement and amplification of theosophy of the Secret Doctrine. Bailey inherited from Blavatsky and Leadbeater a predilection for profuse details and complex classificatory schemes. ... Her books have also introduced shifts in emphasis as well as new doctrinal elements."[45]

In contrast to the above, some Theosophical critics have contended that there are major differences between Bailey's ideas and the Theosophy of Blavatsky, such as Bailey's embrace of some mystical Christian terms and concepts and her acceptance of C.W. Leadbeater.[22][46]

Nicholas Weeks, writing for the Theosophical magazine Fohat in 1997, felt Bailey's assertion that "... her teachings are grounded in and do not oppose in any fundamental way Theosophy as lived and taught by HPB and her Gurus" was false. Her books are in fact "rooted in the pseudo-theosophy pioneered by C. W. Leadbeater." He stated Bailey accepted Leadbeater's "fantasy" of the return of Christ and disparaged Bailey's Great Invocation, a prayer supposed to "induce Christ and his Masters to leave their hidden ashrams [and] enter into major cities" to lead the Aquarian Age. This contrasts with the Theosophy of Blavatsky, he says, which emphasizes reliance on "the Christos principle within each person".[46]

The Blavatskian theosophists[edit]

A principle of Theosophy, the Law of Attraction was discussed in esoteric writings by Blavatsky,[47] Annie Besant,[48] William Quan Judge,[49] and others;[50][51] and was also discussed in the writings of Alice Bailey, including a whole chapter in one of her books.[52][53][54] The term has been embraced, in a simplified form, by the contemporary New Age movement and was popularized in the 2006 film The Secret.

Racial theories[edit]

Bailey upheld theories of racial differentiation that posited a division of humanity into races that are on different levels in a "ladder of evolution". These 'races' do not represent a national or physical type, but a state of evolution. For example, she states that the Aryan root race (or '5th race'), as an "emerging new race", are the most recently evolved people on Earth, although the term 'Aryan' as used by her has a quite distinct meaning from the separative and racist use of the word. It refers not only to Caucasian peoples, but to origins in Indo-Persia, and indicates a culture where thought and intellect is dominant. Bailey considered the Aryan race to be determined by a state of consciousness, not by genetic or racial traits; she wrote, "as evolution proceeds, things are greatly speeded up, and the time when humanity will be predominantly distinguished by the Aryan consciousness, is not as far ahead as might be generally supposed. I speak not in terms of the Aryan race as it is generally understood today or in its Nordic implications.”[55] In her book Education in the New Age, Bailey made predictions about the use of occult racial theories in the schools of the future, which she said would be based on the idea of 'root races' (originally vast prehistoric spans of time covering thousands of years when a particular human facet was being developed) such as Lemurians (physically adept), Atlanteans (emotionally adept), Aryans (mentally adept), and the New Race with "group qualities and consciousness and idealistic vision."[56] However, she holds that the forthcoming 'sixth sub-race' (evolving from facets of current 'fifth race' intellectual culture) cannot reach its peak until the 'sixth race' proper (due many thousands of years hence), and may therefore not be the advance some of her New Age followers wish for. In her The Destiny of the Nations, Bailey described a process by which this "new race" will evolve, after which "low grade human bodies will disappear, causing a general shift in the racial types toward a higher standard."[57]

Her writings were criticized by Victor Shnirelman, a cultural anthropologist and ethnographer, who in a survey of modern Neopaganism in Russia, drew particular attention to "... groups [that] take an extremely negative view of multi-culturalism, object to the 'mixture' of kinds, [and] support isolationism and the prohibition of immigration." He noted that a number of Bailey's books, as well as those of her contemporary Julius Evola, had been recently translated into Russian, and said that "... racist and antisemitic trends are explicit, for example, in the occult teachings of Alice Bailey and her followers, who wish to cleanse Christianity of its 'Jewish inheritance' and reject the 'Jewish Bible' as a prerequisite for entering the Age of Aquarius.".[58]

Monica Sjöö, a Swedish-born British artist and writer wrote that Bailey, through her published teachings, had a "reactionary and racist influence on the whole New Age movement."[59] She also noted what she called Bailey's (and Theosophy's) "pro-fascist religious views", such as the belief in a secret elite of "Masters" who control world events and human minds through occult means and attempt to bring about the evolution of an Aryan super race (although this is an understandably modern misunderstanding of her teaching – 'Aryan' as used by Bailey is easily confused with the modern terminology, and the "Masters" are not an elite, but instead are 'enlightened' individuals originally introduced in theosophy as having evolved beyond the human or "4th kingdom" into the fifth or "Kingdom of souls", and who – in her view – guide the human race as a whole).[60]

Controversy has arisen around some of Bailey's statements on nationalism, American isolationism, Soviet totalitarianism, Fascism, Zionism, Nazism, race relations, Africans, Jews, and the religions of Judaism and Christianity. Yonassan Gershom and others have claimed that her writings contain racist material.[37][61][62][63]

The American Chassidic author Rabbi Yonassan Gershom wrote that Bailey's plan for a New World Order and her call for "the gradual dissolution—again if in any way possible—of the Orthodox Jewish faith" revealed that "her goal is nothing less than the destruction of Judaism itself." Gershom also wrote that "This stereotyped portrayal of Jews is followed by a hackneyed diatribe against the Biblical Hebrews, based upon the "angry Jehovah" theology of nineteenth-century Protestantism. Jews do not, and never have, worshipped an angry vengeful god, and we Jews never, ever call God "Jehovah."[61]

On organized religions[edit]

Bailey taught a form of universal spirituality that transcended denominational identification, believing that, "Every class of human beings is a group of brothers. Catholics, Jews, Gentiles, occidentals and orientals are all the sons of God." She stated that all religions originate from the same spiritual source, and that humanity will eventually come to realize this, and as they do so, the result will be the emergence of a universal world religion and a "new world order".[64][65]

Despite her focus on unity of religion, Bromley and Hammond point out that Bailey and other "occultists" ". . . hammered home the central idea, 'The East is the true home of spiritual knowledge and occult wisdom'."[66]

Author Steven Sutcliffe wrote that Bailey's "World Goodwill" organization was promoting groups of "world servers" to, as he quotes Bailey, "serve the Plan, Humanity, the Hierarchy and the Christ".[67]

Influence[edit]

Groups founded by Bailey or her followers[edit]

The Arcane School, founded by Alice and Foster Bailey to disseminate spiritual teachings, organizes a worldwide "Triangles" program to bring people together in groups of three, for daily meditation and study. Their belief is that they receive divine energy through meditation; this energy is transmitted to humanity, so raising spiritual awareness.[68] John Michael Greer's New Encyclopedia of the Occult states that the school "seeks to develop a New Group of World Servers to accomplish the work of the Hierarchy of Masters, under the guidance of its head, the Christ."[69]

Influence on the New Age Movement[edit]

Bailey made extensive use of the term "New Age" in her books and some writers have described her as the founder of the New Age movement.[4][58][70] However The New Age was used as the title of a Journal of Christian liberalism and Socialism, published as early as 1894, predating Bailey's use of the term.[71][72]

James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton, in Perspectives on the New Age wrote, "The most important—though certainly not the only—source of this transformative metaphor, as well as the term "New Age", was Theosophy, particularly as the Theosophical perspective was mediated to the movement by the works of Alice Bailey."[73]

Sir John Sinclair, in his book The Alice Bailey Inheritance, commented on the seminal influence of Alice Bailey, which, he said, underlies the consciousness growth movement in the 20th century.[74]

Influence on neopaganism[edit]

Several writers have mentioned the affinity of some of Bailey's concepts with modern expressions of paganism.[75][76]

During the 1960s and 1970s, the neopagan author and ceremonial magic ritualist Caroll Poke Runyon published a magazine called The Seventh Ray, its name taken from the writings of Alice Bailey. In the 1990s, two volumes of collected articles from the magazine were published as The Seventh Ray Book I, The Blue Ray and The Seventh Ray Book II, the Red Ray.

Influence on women in religion[edit]

Author Catherine Wessinger wrote that Bailey was a liberated woman "... sixty years before it became popular"; that Bailey's books expressed a similar "millennial view" to the works of Annie Besant; and that they were "an important source of the contemporary New Age movement."[77]

According to the Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America, several leaders of New Age philosophy have further developed Bailey's teachings, including the well-known personalities JZ Knight (who channels the entity known by the name Ramtha), Helen Schucman (author of A Course in Miracles through the process of telepathic dictation she called "scribing"),and Elizabeth Clare Prophet (who published what she referred to as "dictations from Ascended Masters").

The "Tibetan" teacher, Djwhal Khul, whom Bailey claimed was the co-author of many of her books, has also been claimed as co-author by two new female channelers, Violet Starre and Moriah Marston. Starre claims to have channeled Bailey's old teacher twice: the title of her first book, Diamond Light, Cosmic Psychology of Being, 4th Dimension, 7 Rays & More, owes an obvious debt to Bailey's writings, and is sometimes listed in book catalogues under the full title "Diamond Light, Cosmic Psychology of Being, 4th Dimension, 7 Rays & More (Teachings Similar to Those Given to Alice A. Bailey) by Djwhal (channeled Through Violet Starre) Khul.".[78] The same influence can also be seen in Starre's The Amethyst Light: Djwhal Khul Through Violet Starre, published in 2004. Marston's Soul Searching with Djwahl Khul, the Tibetan, was published in 2006, and according to her publisher, Airleaf Books, "She has been a conscious channel for Ascended Master Djwhal Khul since 1986."

Influence on psychotherapy and healing[edit]

In 1930, with the patronage of English-Dutch spiritualist, theosophist and scholar Olga Froebe-Kapteyn, Bailey established the short-lived "School of Spiritual Research" located on Froebe-Kapteyn's estate, Casa Gabriella, in Switzerland. (In 1932 the school was closed due to personal conflict between Bailey and Froebe-Kapteyn, at which time Froebe-Kapteyn replaced it with the Eranos group.) Roberto Assagioli, founder of Psychosynthesis, was a lecturer at School of Spiritual Research.[79] He continued a close association with Bailey during the 1930s; some of his writings were published in Bailey's magazine The Beacon; and he was a trustee of Bailey's organization, the Lucis Trust.[80] He had developed his approach to psychology, called Psychosynthesis, beginning in 1910; his methods were later influenced by some elements of Bailey's work.[81][82][83][84][85] However, authors John Firman and Ann Gila write that Assagioli kept what he referred to as a "wall of silence" between the areas of psychosynthesis and religion or metaphysics, insisting that they not be confused with each other.[86]

Roger J. Woolger said, in a paper presented to the "Beyond the Brain" Conference held at Cambridge University in 1999, "In Tansley as in Brennan you will find descriptions of a hierarchy of subtle bodies called the etheric, emotional, mental and spiritual that surround the physical body. (Interestingly Tansley attributed the source of his model to Alice Bailey's theosophical commentary on The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the locus classicus of Hindu teaching.)"[87]

Bailey's influence can be found in therapeutic communities with which she was never directly involved, such as the Human Potential Movement.[6]

Influence on UFO groups[edit]

Christopher Partridge wrote that the works of Bailey, Rudolf Steiner, and Theosophy in general all influenced what he called the "UFO religions".[88] He explained that "...Theosophy has several prominent branches, and, strictly speaking, the branch which has had the most important influence on the UFO religion is that developed by Alice Bailey.".[89] Partridge also quoted Gordon Melton, who suggested that the first UFO religion was Guy Ballard's "I Am" Activity,[88] which Bailey described as a "cheap comedy."[90]

Professor Robert S. Ellwood of the University of Southern California investigated a wide range of religious and spiritual groups in the United States during the 1970s, including a nationwide group of UFO believers called Understanding, Inc., which had been founded by a contactee named Daniel Fry. He reported that, "There is no particular religious practice connected with the meeting, although interestingly the New Age Prayer derived from the Alice Bailey writings is used as an invocation."[91]

George D. Chryssides of the University of Wolverhampton, cited Bailey's influence on the ideas of the Order of the Solar Temple and related UFO organisations.[92]

Alice A. Bailey in popular culture[edit]

Music

  • In 1975, Todd Rundgren released an album titled Initiation which has a song called "Initiation" on side one. The title of the album is apparently based on the Theosophical concept of Initiation, taught by Alice A. Bailey and C.W. Leadbeater. The entire second side of the album is taken up by a song called "A Treatise on Cosmic Fire"; the three parts of the song are listed as: "I. The Internal Fire, or Fire by Friction; II. The Fire of Spirit, or Electric Fire; The Fire of Mind, or Solar Fire." The second parts of these three phrases are taken directly from Alice A. Bailey's book A Treatise on Cosmic Fire. Also in 1975, Rundgren released an album by his side-project Utopia titled "Another Live." This album contained a song titled "The Seven Rays" (see reference above). Finally, in 1977, Rundgren followed up with another Bailey reference with a song entitled "Love in Action" from the Utopia album Oops! Wrong Planet. Love in Action was the concept promoted by Bailey's and Foster Bailey's "World Goodwill" organization.
  • In 1982, Bailey's influence appeared in pop culture, with the release of Van Morrison's album Beautiful Vision, in which he directly referred to the teachings and the Tibetan in the lyrics of the songs "Dweller on the Threshold" and "Aryan Mist".[93] Morrison also used the phrase "world of glamour", reminiscent of Bailey's Glamour: A World Problem, in the songs "Ivory Tower" and "Green Mansions". The song Ancient of Days from the 1984 Sense of Wonder album appears to be a reference to a Bailey concept found in such books as The Externalization of the Hierarchy. Alice A. Bailey and the Tibetan's Glamour: A World Problem is also directly cited in the liner notes to Morrison's album Inarticulate Speech of the Heart.

Bibliography[edit]

The Lucis Publishing Company and the Lucis Press Limited are the official publishers of Alice Bailey's books.

Credited to Alice Bailey[edit]

Works containing the prefatory Extract from a Statement by the Tibetan, generally taken to indicate the book was a "received" work.

Credited to Alice A. Bailey alone[edit]

Works in which Bailey claimed sole authorship of the material.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ American Astrology magazine, September 1937
  2. ^ Bailey 1951 p.1. From the Preface by Foster Bailey.
  3. ^ Bailey 1951. pp.233–234.
  4. ^ a b Jenkins 2000. p.87. "Writers of the 1920s and 1930s presented themselves as advocates of a New Age of occult enlightenment, and Alice Bailey did much to popularize the dual terms 'New Age' and 'Aquarian'"
  5. ^ Bailey 1951. pp. 9, 12.
  6. ^ a b c d e }Keller 2006. p.65.
  7. ^ Ross, Joseph E. (2004). Krotona of Old Hollywood, Vol. II. Joseph Ross. p. 340. ISBN 0-925943-12-6. 
  8. ^ a b Keller, Rosemary Skinner. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America. Indiana University Press. 2006. p 762
  9. ^ Sutcliffe, Steven J, (2003). Children of the New Age: A History of Spiritual Practices. Routledge. p. 46. ISBN 0-415-24299-1. 
  10. ^ Mills, Joy, 100 Years of Theosophy, A History of the Theosophical Society in America, 1987, p. 62
  11. ^ Meade, Marion, Madame Blavatsky, the Woman Behind the Myth, Putnam, 1980, p. 468
  12. ^ Campbell, Bruce, F., Ancient Wisdom Revived, a History of the Theosophical Movement, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1980, p. 151
  13. ^ Penn, Lee (2004). False Dawn: The United Religions Initiative, Globalism, and the Quest for a One World Religion. Sophia Perennis. p. 20. ISBN 1-59731-000-X. 
  14. ^ a b Campbell, Bruce, F., Ancient Wisdom Revived, a History of the Theosophical Movement, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1980, p. 151
  15. ^ Ransom, Josephine, A Short History of the Theosophical Society, Adyar, 1938, p. 452
  16. ^ Ross, Joseph E., Krotona of Old Hollywood, Vol. II Joseph Ross, 2004, p. 346
  17. ^ Hammer, Olav (2004). Claiming Knowledge: Strategies of Epistemology from Theosophy to the New Age. BRILL. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-13638-X. 
  18. ^ "About the Beacon". 
  19. ^ Initiation, Human and Solar. Copyright 1922 by Alice A. Bailey. First Edition. Lucifer Publishing Co., 135 Broadway, New York City
  20. ^ Judah, Stillson J. "History and Philosophy of Metaphysical Movements in America" (1967), Westsmister Press, pp.119–131, and Campbell, Bruce, Ancient Wisdom Revived: A History of the Theosophical Movement (1980), pp.150–55, University of California Press, Berkley, ISBN 0-520-03968-8, as cited in Beekman, Scott, William Dudley Pelley: A Life in Right-Wing Extremism And the Occult (2005), p.196, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 0-8156-0819-5
  21. ^ Wood, Ernest, The Seven Rays, Theosophical Publishing House, Wheaton, Illinois, 1925
  22. ^ a b c Campbell, Bruce, F., Ancient Wisdom Revived, a History of the Theosophical Movement, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1980, p. 153
  23. ^ Colebrooke, Henry Thomas (1858). Essays on the Religion and Philosophy of the Hindus. Williams and Norgate. pp. 79, 83, 119. "Reprinted from 'Asiatic researches' and from the 'Transactions of the Royal Asiatic society.' Original from Harvard University." 
  24. ^ Garrett, John (1871). A Classical Dictionary of India: Illustrative of the Mythology, Philosophy, Literature, Antiquities, Arts, Manners, Customs, &c. of the Hindus. Higginbotham and Co. pp. 203, 216. "Director of Public Instruction, Mysore, India; Original from Oxford University." 
  25. ^ Leo, Alan (1978). Esoteric Astrology. Destiny Books. p. 318. ISBN 0-89281-181-1. 
  26. ^ Leo, Alan (2005). Symbolism and Astrology: An Introduction to Esoteric Astrology. Cosimo Classics. p. 88. ISBN 1-59605-614-2. 
  27. ^ Oken, Alan (1990). Soul-Centered Astrology. The Crossing Press. 
  28. ^ Leadbeater, C. W., A Textbook Of Theosophy, The Theosophical Publishing House, India, 1914, chapter I
  29. ^ Bailey, Alice A. Esoteric Healing. Lucis Trust. 1953 p 564
  30. ^ Bailey, Alice A. Initiation Human and Solar, Lucis Trust. 1922 p IV, chart III
  31. ^ Jurriaance, Aart, Bridges, " Bridges Trust, South Africa, c. 1978, p. 130, 77, 91, 105
  32. ^ Jurriaance, Aart, Bridges, " Bridges Trust, South Africa, c. 1978, p. 209, 261, 268
  33. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Clark, Jerome; Kelly, Aidan A. (1990). New Age Encyclopedia. Gale Research Inc. p. 57. ISBN 0-8103-7159-6. 
  34. ^ Sutcliffe, Steven J, (2003). Children of the New Age: A History of Spiritual Practices. Routledge. pp. 138–139. ISBN 0-415-24299-1. 
  35. ^ Sutcliffe, Steven J, (2003). Children of the New Age: A History of Spiritual Practices. Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 0-415-24299-1. 
  36. ^ Woodhead, Linda (2002). Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations. Routledge. p. 250. ISBN 0-415-21784-9. 
  37. ^ a b Newman, Hannah (2005). "Invocation, The Great". In Levy, Richard S. Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. ABC-CLIO. pp. 351–352. ISBN 1-85109-439-3. 
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