Vilcabamba, Peru

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This article is about the Peruvian village. For the Ecuadorian village known for the longevity of its residents, see Vilcabamba, Ecuador.
Edmundo Guillén and Elżbieta Dzikowska in the ruins of Vilcabamba, photo taken by Tony Halik in 1976

Vilcabamba (in hispanicized spelling), Willkapampa (Aymara[1] and Quechua)[2][3][4][5] or Espíritu Pampa was a city founded by Manco Inca in 1539 and was the last refuge of the Inca Empire until it fell to the Spaniards in 1572, signaling the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule. It is located on the Chontabamba River, a tributary of the Urubamba River.[6] It is often referred to as Vilcabamba the Old or Old Vilcabamba to distinguish it from the Spanish colonial town of Vilcabamba la Nueva.[7]

History[edit]

Inca remnant[edit]

Inca Government in Vilcabamba
Tawantinsuyu  (Quechua)
Empire
Vassal of the Spanish Empire (1567-1571)

 

1539–1572


Banner of the Tawantinsuyu

Modern Department of Cusco within Peru; the limits of the Inca Empire in Vilcabamba are unclear
Capital Vilcabamba
Languages Quechua, Spanish
Religion Inca religion, Roman Catholicism
Government Monarchy
Sapa Inca
 -  1539–1545 Manco Inca
 -  1545–1558 Sayri Tupac
 -  1558–1571 Titu Cusi Yupanqui
 -  1571–1572 Tupac Amaru
Historical era Early Modern Period
 -  Vilcabamba founded 1539
 -  Treaty of Acobamba 1566
 -  Inca rebellion and annexation to the Viceroyalty of Peru 1572
Today part of  Peru

(to be expanded)[8]

After the Inca empire fell, the city was burned and the area swiftly became a remote, secluded spot.

Spanish Vilcabamba[edit]

San Francisco de la Vitoria de Vilcabamba, also known as Vilcabamba la Nueva ("the New"), was a Spanish colonial silver-mining town. It is located west of Vilcabamba the Old on the Vilcabamba River, a tributary of the Urubamba River.[7]

Archaeologic studies[edit]

The location of Vilcabamba was forgotten.

The first outsiders in modern times to rediscover the remote forest site that has since come to be identified with Old Vilcabamba (Vilcabamba la Vieja) were three Cuzqueños: Manuel Ugarte, Manuel López Torres, and Juan Cancio Saavedra, in 1892. In 1911, Hiram Bingham with his book Lost City of the Incas brought to public attention the site of the ruins of the city at the remote forest site then called Espíritu Pampa, 130 kilometres (81 mi) west of Cuzco. Bingham, however, did not realize its significance and believed that Machu Picchu was the fabled "Vilcabamba", lost city and last refuge of the Incas.

In the 1960s, the explorations and discoveries of Antonio Santander Casselli and Gene Savoy finally associated the Espíritu Pampa site with the legendary Vilcabamba. Their 1970 book Antisuyo brought the site to even wider attention. Researcher and author John Hemming provided additional substantive confirmation as to Espíritu Pampa's significance in his 1970 The Conquest of the Incas.

In 1976, Professor Edmundo Guillén and Polish explorers Tony Halik and Elżbieta Dzikowska continued to explore the long-known ruins. However, before the expedition, Guillen visited a museum in Seville where he discovered letters from Spaniards, in which they described the progress of the invasion and what they found in Vilcabamba. Comparison between the letters' contents and the ruins provided additional proof of the location of Vilcabamba.

In 1981, the party of American explorer Gregory Deyermenjian reached and photographed parts of the site, soon thereafter generating a popular article concerning the site and its history.[9]

Later extensive archeological work by Vincent Lee, and especially his exhaustive study, his 2000 book Forgotten Vilcabamba, gave further and even more precise confirmation that has made Espíritu Pampa the definitively accepted site of the historical Vilcabamba.

On 16 June 2006, a museum in Cuzco[which?] unveiled a plaque that commemorates the thirtieth anniversary of the 1976 Vilcabamba findings.

In popular culture[edit]

The lost city of Vilcabamba features in the educational computer game series The Amazon Trail, the Tomb Raider videogame and its remake Tomb Raider: Anniversary, and the books Evil Star and Necropolis by British thriller author Anthony Horowitz. Vilcabamba is also a playable place in the PlayStation 2 RPG Shadow Hearts: From the New World.

The second episode of Michael Wood's 2000 documentary series Conquistadors visits the site of Vilcabamba while telling the story of the fall of the Inca and retreat of Manco and his followers to the remote region as the last surviving remnant of the empire.

The city was the location of British writer Colin Thubron's 2002 novel, To the Last City, which was short-listed for the Man Booker Prize, and tells the story of a group of people who set off to explore the ruins of the Inca city[10] in what has been described as a "Heart of Darkness narrative" in a "Marquezian setting".

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ludovico Bertonio, Transcripción del vocabulario de la lengua aymara (Spanish-Aymara dictionary): Willka - Adoratorio dedicado al Sol u otros ídolos. / El Sol como antiguamente decían y ahora dicen inti. Pampa - El campo o todo lo que está fuera del pueblo, ahora sea cuesta, ahora llano. +Todo lo bajo respecto de la mesa o poyo, la tierra llana.
  2. ^ Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary): willka - s. Nieto, ta respecto del abuelo. / s. Dios menor en la teogonia incaica. pampa s. Campo. Lugar generalmente plano. Pampa. / s. Llanura. Terreno uniforme y dilatado, sin altos ni bajos pronunciados.
  3. ^ Diccionario Quechua - Español - Quechua, Academía Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, Gobierno Regional Cusco, Cusco 2005: willka - s. Hist. Idolo de este nombre. Icono o imagen que representaba la divinidad tutelar del valle que se extiende desde lo que hoy es La Raya –línea divisoria entre Cusco y Puno– hasta la montaña misma. (J.L.P.) || Apellido de origen inkaico. / s. Biznieto o biznieta. SINÓN: haway. || Linaje. || adj. Sagrado, divino, sacro.
  4. ^ Mariko Namba Walter,Eva Jane Neumann Fridman, Shamanism: An Encyclopedia of World Beliefs, Practices, and Culture, Vol. 1, p. 439 willka or vilca (Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina):
  5. ^ Bingham, Hiram III. (2002) The Lost City of the Incas. Centenary edition. New York:Sterling Publ. Co. p.155. (huilca a type of tree and pampa a lowland flat area)
  6. ^ Lee, Vincent H. L. (2000). Forgotten Vilcabamba: final stronghold of the Incas. [Wilson, Wyo.]: Sixpac Manco Publications. ISBN 978-0-9677109-0-7. 
  7. ^ a b Thomson, Hugh. (2001). The White Rock. An Exploration of the Inca Heartland. London: Orion Books Ltd. p.310.
  8. ^ Titu Cusi Yupanqui (1570) Instrucción al Licenciado Lope García de Castro. Prologued by the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Fondo Editorial 1992
  9. ^ Deyermenjian, Gregory. (1985). "Vilcabamba Revisited" in South American Explorer, No. 12.
  10. ^ McCrum, Robert (July 28, 2002). "Back to the heart of darkness". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 27, 2010. 

Sources[edit]

Coordinates: 12°54′10″S 73°12′21″W / 12.90278°S 73.20583°W / -12.90278; -73.20583