Española, New Mexico
Skyline view from the city's Industrial Park
Location of Española, New Mexico
|County||Rio Arriba, Santa Fe|
|Named for||See history section|
|• Type||Mayor-council government|
|• Mayor||Alice Alarid–Lucero|
|• City Council|
|• State House|
|• State Senate|
|• U.S. House|
|• Total||8.5 sq mi (21.9 km2)|
|• Land||8.4 sq mi (21.7 km2)|
|• Water||0.08 sq mi (0.2 km2)|
|• Density||1,140/sq mi (440.0/km2)|
|ZIP codes||87532, 87533|
|GNIS feature ID||928729|
Española // is a city primarily in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, in the United States. A portion of the central and eastern section of the city is in Santa Fe County. Española was founded in 1880 as a railroad village and incorporated as a city in 1925. The city is situated in an area Juan de Oñate declared a capital for Spain in 1598. Española has been called the first capital city in America. At the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 10,495. Española is within the Albuquerque – Santa Fe – Las Vegas combined statistical area.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Arts and culture
- 6 Telecomunications
- 7 Parks and recreation
- 8 Government
- 9 Education
- 10 Notable or Native Residents
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Española was referred to as 'La Vega de los Vigiles' (Vigil's Meadow) before the presence of railroads. It is believed that the town that began as Española was named by railroad workers. At the time of railroad construction, a small restaurant in the area was nicknamed "La Española". This was because of the large presence of Spanish women in the area. The name became official by 1900 and Española became a small railroad town. Before the railroads, this is where Spanish and Native American people had settled for hundreds of years, making a living from farming along the Rio Grande.
The Española area (known as the "San Juan Valley" to the early Spaniards) is also known as the first European-founded capital of the "New World." The region was explored In 1598 by Don Juan de Oñate. He declared the area a capital for Spain, the area of Don Diego de Vargas' new villa at Santa Cruz. Oñate arrived in the Española area on July 11, 1598, at the confluence of the Chama River and the Rio Grande, where he established a camp at a place then called Yunque-Yunque. He created a Spanish settlement in an area already inhabited by the indigenous descendants of the Anasazi.
Present-day Española was founded in 1880, with the introduction of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. In early 1880, the famous railroad which ran predominantly through the Rocky Mountain region announced a route extension of its narrow gauge into northern New Mexico. The line was built along the Rio Grande, and later was known as the Chili Line. The route would extend into what today is the downtown Española area, and the railroad began selling lots in the area. Anglo merchants, mountain men, and settlers slowly filtered into Española. Frank Bond and his brother George, who were canadian emigrants would later arrive in the city, together they established the state's largest mercantile and a multi–million dollar wool empire, with them came economic growth and prominence. Española was the headquarters for all the Bond family interests which included over 12 businesses across New Mexico.
Many residents of the nearby town of Santa Fe were not happy with the decision and failure of connection of the railroad, prompting protest. The Española station however, included an engine facility station along with a roundhouse and turntable so it could service the locomotives. The facilities were built but torn down or no longer in use after six years; plans for the town had changed. The railroad would later reach Santa Fe to connect with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway in late 1887.
Frank R. Frankenburger, a business man born in Fort Scott, Kansas, was the first "elected" mayor, he was elected in 1923, the first mayor who was chosen in "popularity" was Frank Bond, in 1907. In 1925 Española was incorporated as a city. As the population rose, there was a high demand for public education in the city. Española High School was established; it would be the largest school in the area for decades. The first high school in the area, however, was Santa Cruz High School. Two miles away from downtown Española, it opened in 1906 in the historic Santa Cruz area. Both high schools are no longer in existence after a merger of school districts in 1975.
The existence of the railroad began to dissipate as minimal passenger traffic and low shipments forced the railroad to close in the early 1940s. Many locals would become unemployed and would follow the railroad to Santa Fe, Albuquerque and central Colorado for jobs. Española's population would fall dramatically and many homes in the downtown became abandoned. Most of the locals who remained would turn to farming as a way of life. Many people saw Española as another failed railroad town. The city removed the railroad tracks and the train depot in the 1960s, and the railroads completely vanished.
In the 1980s, many historical buildings and homes of historical significance were torn down for urban renewal. Española followed many other New Mexico cities in this trend, but in Española, it failed. More modern business began to moved into town, but the growth of Española had now expanded east across the Rio Grande. Although several buildings of historical significance remain in downtown Española, many are unused or abandoned. Strip malls became visible in Española, the first being the 'Big Rock shopping center', founded by oil tycoon Roy Honstein. With the beginnings of Manhattan Project in the nearby city of Los Alamos, many locals would find jobs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which would later employ nearly 9% of Española's population.
In the 1990s, a controversial plan to build a "plaza" and mission church where many historic buildings once stood was up for consideration. The city agreed to the plan, and locals supported the plaza. Although a plaza never existed in Española before the railroads, it was built to pay tribute to the Spanish culture in the area.
In 1998, Española celebrated the 400th anniversary of the colonization by the Spanish and the founding of the first permanent European colony in North America. The event was celebratory for some and controversial for others; on January 5, 1998 someone cut the foot off a sculpture of Juan de Oñate in the Oñate Monument Visitors Center. A group calling itself Brothers of Acoma claimed responsibility.
Heroin use in the area increased rapidly beginning in the 1990s. In the period 2001–2005, Rio Arriba County had the highest per capita rate of drug fatalities in the country, with 42.5 deaths per 100,000 population compared to 7.3 nationally; however, in the city limits of Española the numbers are far below the national average at 0.5.
On September 18, 2008 then Sen. Barack Obama, the Democratic nominee for President of the United States, visited Española for a rally at the city's New Plaza in the Main Street district. Nearly 10,000 people packed the Plaza from around the Española Valley. Española has a large number of Hispanics and a large majority are Democrats.
Española is located at (36.001884, -106.064587).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.9 square kilometers (8.5 sq mi), with 21.7 square kilometers (8.4 sq mi) land and 0.2 square kilometers (0.077 sq mi) water, for a total of 0.83%.
Española lies at an elevation of around 5,595 feet (1,705 m) with much variance. It is in a valley nestled between the Jemez and Sangre de Cristo mountain ranges, and the meeting point of three rivers, the Rio Grande, the Rio Chama, and the Rio Santa Cruz.
July is the warmest month in Española, with an average high of 91 °F (33 °C). The highest recorded temperature was 107 °F (42 °C) in 2003. The average coolest month is January at 45 °F (7 °C). The lowest recorded temperature was −38 °F (−39 °C) in 1971. The maximum average precipitation occurs in August with an average of 1.90 inches (48 mm).
|Climate data for Española, New Mexico|
|Record high °F (°C)||67
|Average high °F (°C)||45
|Average low °F (°C)||14
|Record low °F (°C)||−38
|Precipitation inches (mm)||0.40
According to an annual report by the American Lung Association, the Santa Fe-Espanola CSA (metropolitan area) has the cleanest ozone layer in the country (ranked #1), cleanest area in the country for 24-hour particle pollution (ranked #1) and cleanest area in the country for annual particle pollution (ranked #2).
At the census of 2000, there were 9,688 people, 5,751 households, and 4,569 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,155.4 people per square mile (446.4/km²). There were 5,107 housing units at an average density of 189.2/square kilometer (489.8/square mile). The racial makeup of the city was 67.55% White, 0.58% African American, 2.86% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 25.56% from other races, and 3.25% from two or more races. 84.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,751 households, of which 35.6% had children under the age of eighteen living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 18.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.5% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of single individuals, and 9.7% had someone living alone who was sixty-five years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the city the population was spread out, with 27.8% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was thirty-four years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females aged eighteen and over, there were 94.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,144, and the median income for a family was $32,255. Males had a median income of $25,558 versus $23,177 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,303. 21.6% of the population and 16.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 28.4% of those under the age of eighteen and 15.1% of those sixty-five and older were living below the poverty line.
As of the census of 2010, there were 10,495 people, 5,897 households, and 4,690 families residing in the city.
The racial makeup of the city was:
- 9.5% White (alone)
- 0.7% Black or African American
- 1.9% Native American
- 1.2% Asian
- 0.8% from other races
- 0.4% Multiracial (two or more races)
- 85.0% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos (of any race)
|Largest Employers in Española|
|1||Los Alamos National Laboratory|
|2||Española Public Schools|
|3||Akal Securities Inc.|
|4||Presbyterian Health Services|
|5||Northern New Mexico College|
|6||Northern Pueblos Gaming|
|7||New Mexico State Government|
|8||Española City Government|
The Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos is the largest employer in Española, it accounts for over 12% employment of residents. The education sector is the second largest employer, the Española Public Schools is the 16th largest school district in New Mexico. Recently, Northern New Mexico College has expanded its degree programs and made massive improvements to its campus, adding a new library and a new School of Education. Larger local businesses include Akal Securities Inc, a security company that employees over 500 people.
Española has seen much commercial development on Riverside Drive, the city's secondary main road. Retail and eatery chains such as Lowe's, Chili's and GameStop, are anchors of a massive shopping square located next to Wal-Mart which came into the city in 1999. Many other stores such as CVS/Pharmacy and Petsense have recently added locations in Española.
Arts and culture
There has been a steady influx of undocumented immigration to the Valley for the last decade, which has significantly increased their visibility and influence in the area. Española (especially the neighboring community of Sombrillo) is also home to the largest community of ethnically diverse Sikhs in the world. While most Sikhs descend from the Punjab region of India, the Sikhs in Española come from all over the world.
Satview Broadband, headquartered in Reno, is the local cable television company.
Española's restaurants and convenience stores are popular with travelers between Santa Fe and northern communities, as well as with local people. The local fiestas are held in the summer and include live New Mexican-style Spanish or country music, vendors, and many locals.
There are many locations near Española to do almost any outdoor activity such as hiking, biking, and river sports like rafting and kayaking. Nearby winter sports include skiing (downhill and cross-country) and snowboarding.
Parks and recreation
- Penny Roybal Garcia Aquatic Center
- Richard L. Lucero Center
Major community parks
- Plaza de Española Park
- Veterans Memorial park
- Ranchitos Park
- Valdez Memorial Park
- Black Mesa Golf course
The city of Española run by a mayor–council government system under Strong-mayor form. The mayor and eight-member city councilors from their respected districts are elected to a four year term, elections are constant every two years, with no term limits. The mayor appoints a city manager who supervises department heads, prepares the budget, and coordinates departments.
Every year, one council member is elected by majority in the council to mayor pro–tempore, usually a member from the party that is in control of the council. The mayor can approve or veto any decision made by the council. However, the council can override the mayor's veto with a five out of eight member vote.
|Name||Position||Party reg.||Took office||Up for
|Pete Valdez||District 1||Republican||2010||2014|
|Dennis Tim Salazar||District 1, pro–tem||Democrat||2004||2016|
|Michelle Martinez||District 2||Democrat||2012||2014|
|Peggy Sue Martinez||District 2||Democrat||2012||2016|
|John Hernandez||District 3||Independent||2013||2018|
|Eric S. Radosevich||District 3||Republican||2012||2016|
|Adrianna Ortiz||District 4||Republican||2014||2018|
|Cory J. Lewis||District 4||Democrat||2010||2016|
|Stephen Salazar||Municipal Court||Democrat||2002||2016|
List of mayors
Mayors of Española Popular Mayor Party Registration Years served Frank Bond Republican 1907–1913 C. L. Pollard Democrat 1913–1915 Louis F. Nohl Republican 1915–1917 Frank Bond Republican 1918–1922 Elected Mayor Party Registration Years served F.R. Frankenburger Republican 1923–1929 Tobias Espinosa Republican 1929–1932 M. D. Wright Republican 1932–1934 Diego Salazar Republican 1934–1950 John Block Jr. Democrat 1950–1954 Joe E. Roybal Democrat 1954–1958 Cipriano Vigil Democrat 1958–1966 Epimenio Vigil Democrat 1966–1968 Richard Lucero Democrat 1968–1974 Santiago Martinez Democrat 1974–1982 Consuelo S. Thompson Democrat 1982–1986 Richard Lucero Democrat 1986–1994 Ross Chavez Republican 1994–1998 Richard Lucero Democrat 1998–2006 Joseph Maestas Democrat 2006–2010 Alice Lucero Democrat 2010–Present
Espanola Public Schools serves the City of Española with 1 high school, 1 middle school, and 11 elementary schools.
- James H. Rodriguez Elementary
- Eutimio "Tim" Salazar III Elementary
- Abiquiu Elementary
- Alcalde Elementary
- Chimayo Elementary
- Dixion Elementary
- Hernandez Elementary
- Los Niños Kindergarden Center
- Mountain View Elementary School
- San Juan Elementary
- Velarde Elementary
- Holy Cross Catholic School
- Victory Faith Christian Academy
Notable or Native Residents
- Scott Tipton, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Colorado's 3rd district. Born in Española, 1956
|This section requires expansion. (April 2011)|
- "City of Española Home Page". City of Española. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
- La Vega de Los Vigiles was a small farming community, today Espanola
- Simmons, Marc, ‘’The Last Conquistador: Juan de Oñate and the Settling of the Far Southwest’’, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1991 p. 108-108
- History of Spanish settlers
- Rio Grande Sun, Historical Issue on City of Española, 1961–62
- Rio Grande Sun, Historical Issue on City of Española, 1975
- Brief History of EVHS. Española Public School District. Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
- Denver Rio Grande Rail Road Closes, Santa Fe New Mexican, 1998
- Schwieterman, Joseph P. (2004). When the Railroad Leaves Town: American Communities in the Age of Rail Line Abandonment, Western United States. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press. p. 199. ISBN 1931112134. OCLC 56968524.
- Espanola officials plan to revitalize downtown, Santa Fe New Mexican, 1997
- Roberts, David, The Pueblo Revolt: The Secret Rebellion that Drove the Spanish out of the Southwest,Simon and Schuster, New York, 2004, p. 97
- Glendinning, Chellis, Chiva: A Village Takes on the Global Heroin Trade, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, B.C., Canada, 2005
- Eckholm, Erik (2008-04-02). "A Grim Tradition, and a Long Struggle to End It". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
- "Obama Visits Espanola". KOAT 7 News. September 18, 2008.
- "Obama Rally In Espanola". Santa Fe New Mexican. September 18, 2008.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Monthly Averages for Española, NM". Retrieved August 20, 2008.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Albuquerque (city), New Mexico". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
- "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. October 5, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- "American Sikhs Run Billion-Dollar Security Firm". NPR. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- "Española Government". COE. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
- "Welcome to the Española Public Library". City of Española. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
- City of Espanola 2008–2009 Fiscal Year Budget (PDF). City of Espanola. 2008-09-23.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Espanola, New Mexico.|
- City website
- Community website
- Chamber of Commerce
- McCurdy School
- Rio Grande Sun - Local Newspaper
- Española travel guide from Wikivoyage
- More images of Obama's 2008 visit, at Flickr
- Photos of the crowd at Obama's 2008 visit, at Flickr
- Española featured on NPR's State of the Re:Union