During the 1910s, there were two important amateur football clubs in Piracicaba, Vergueirense, owned by Pousa family, and 12 de Outubro, owned by Guerrini family. In October 1913, the clubs' owners decided to merge both clubs. Captain Carlos Wingeter, of the Brazilian National Guard and who was also a dental surgeon, was appointed as the new club's first president. He accepted the task only if the club was named XV de Novembro (November 15), after the Brazilian Proclamation of Republic day.
On November 15, 1913, the club was founded as Esporte Clube XV de Novembro.
In 2011, XV de Piracicaba was Série A2 champion after beating Guarani on penalty shoot outs after a draw score of 2-2 on the regular and extra time and gained again access to the São Paulo State First Division (Série A1) after 16 years.
XV de Piracicaba's home stadium is Estádio Barão de Serra Negra, inaugurated in 1965, with a maximum capacity of 26,528 people. In the 2nd Semester of 2007, the stadium has undergone a structural renovation in order to allow its safe use.