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Morale (also known as esprit de corps (French pronunciation: [ɛspʀi də kɔʀ])) is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship. Morale is often referenced by authority figures as a generic value judgment of the willpower, obedience, and self-discipline of a group tasked with performing duties assigned by a superior.
|“||An American general defined morale as "when a soldier thinks his army is the best in the world, his regiment the best in the army, his company the best in the regiment, his squad the best in the company, and that he himself is the best blankety-blank soldier man in the outfit."||”|
In military science, there are two meanings to morale. Primarily it means unit cohesion: the cohesion of a unit, task force, or other military group. An army with good supply lines, sound air cover and a clear objective can be said to possess, as a whole, "good morale" or "high morale." Historically, elite military units such as special operations forces have "high morale" due to both their training and pride in their unit. When a unit's morale is said to be "depleted", it means it is close to "crack and surrender". It is well worth noting that generally speaking, most commanders do not look at the morale of specific individuals but rather the "fighting spirit" of squadrons, divisions, battalions, ships, etc.
"Clausewitz stresses the importance of morale and will for both the soldier and the commander. The soldier's first requirement is moral and physical courage, both the acceptance of responsibility and the suppression of fear. In order to survive the horror of combat [,]he must have an invincible martial spirit, which can be attained only through military victory and hardship. The soldier has but one purpose: "The end for which a soldier is recruited, clothed, armed and trained, the whole object of his sleeping, eating, drinking, and marching is simply that he should fight at the right place and the right time."
"Military morale is in a large sense inseparable from civilian morale because each reacts upon the other and both are in large measure based on fidelity to a cause. But there is a certain kind of morale that is distinctly military. It begins with the soldier's attitude toward duty. It develops with the soldier's command over himself. It is a spirit that becomes dominant in the individual and also in the group. Whether the soldier has physical comforts or suffers physical hardships may be a factor but is seldom the determining factor in making or unmaking his morale. A cause known and believed in; knowledge that substantial justice governs discipline; the individual's confidence and pride in himself, his comrades, his leaders; the unit's pride in its own will; these basic things, supplemented by intelligent welfare and recreation measures and brought to life by a spirit of mutual respect and co-operation, combine to weld a seasoned fighting force capable of defending the nation."
In August 2012, an article entitled "Army morale declines in survey" states that "only a quarter of the [US] Army’s officers and enlisted soldiers believe the nation's largest military branch is headed in the right direction." The "...most common reasons cited for the bleak outlook were "ineffective leaders at senior levels," a fear of losing the best and the brightest after a decade of war, and the perception, especially among senior enlisted soldiers, that “the Army is too soft” and lacks sufficient discipline."
Esprit de corps
Esprit de corps is a French expression meaning literally "Spirit of Corps" or "Spirit of Body" in English language. It denotes a strong shared team spirit, mutual solidarity and fellowship, sense of duty, and devotion to a cause among the members of a group. Esprit de corps is tied very closely with the French Foreign Legion and other military units worldwide. In the United States Marine Corps, it is a phrase that sits alongside the core values Honor, Courage, and Commitment as a living, breathing, entity that is not only the fighting spirit but the pride for the unit, service branch, and country, and the devotion and loyalty to the other members of the unit that the men and women fight and serve with. Within the USMC and the RM there is a special meaning and place in the hearts of the men and women for the phrase "Esprit de corps".
In the workplace
Workplace events play a large part in changing employee morale, such as heavy layoffs, the cancellation of overtime, canceling benefits programs. Other events can also influence workplace morale, such as sick building syndrome, low wages, and employees being mistreated.
- Collective identity
- Demoralization (warfare)
- Information warfare
- Pre-work assembly
- Psychological warfare
- Alexander H. Leighton, Human Relations in a Changing World: Observations on the Uses of the Social Sciences (1949)
- Knickerbocker, H.R. (1941). Is Tomorrow Hitler's? 200 Questions On the Battle of Mankind. Reynal & Hitchcock. p. 96.
- Ulio, James. "Military Morale". American Journal of Sociology 1941 The University of Chicago Press. Vol. 47, No. 3, Nov., 1941
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