Southern Railway of Vancouver Island

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Southern Railway of Vancouver Island
SRY logo.png
Southern Railway of Vancouver Island at Chemainus.jpg
The railway running through Chemainus
Reporting mark SVI
Locale Vancouver Island, British Columbia
Dates of operation Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway 1883-2006, Southern Railway of Vancouver Island 2006–
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Headquarters Nanaimo, British Columbia

The Southern Railway of Vancouver Island (reporting mark SVI) is 234 kilometres (145 mi) in length, and is one of two remaining railways on Vancouver Island, the other being the Englewood Railway. The railroad runs from Victoria to Courtenay, with a branch line from Parksville to Port Alberni. In 2006, the Island Corridor Foundation acquired the railway's ownership from the Canadian Pacific Railway and RailAmerica.

Freight service continues; however, the crown corporation Via Rail passenger service has been suspended indefinitely due to deferred maintenance on the railroad.[1]

History[edit]

Vancouver Island joining Canada[edit]

The history of an island railroad[2] and a functioning island railway in perpetuity, started with the colony of Vancouver Island joining British Columbia in 1866, and the Canadian Confederation of 1867, and the incorporation of British Columbia into Canada in 1871. The terms of union required that within two years, the federal government was to start the construction of a railway from the "seaboard of British Columbia" joining the new province and Victoria with the railway system of Canada. On its part, British Columbia was to grant a band of public land of up to 32 kilometres (20 mi) in width along either side of the railway line to the federal government for it to use in furtherance of the construction of the railway. The Pacific terminus of the railway was not specific would see the railway cross the Rockies by the Yellowhead Pass and reach the BC coast at Bute Inlet. It would cross Sonora Island and Quadra Island and reach Vancouver Island by a bridge across Seymour Narrows. Through the influence of then BC Premier Amor de Cosmos, this plan was adopted by Order in Council by the federal government on 7 June 1873. Two shipments of rail were even delivered to Victoria from the United Kingdom. In 1873, Prime Minister of Canada Sir John A. Macdonald had stated that Esquimalt, British Columbia, the site of a naval base, would be the terminus of the "Pacific Railway". However, both the federal government and the Canadian Pacific Railway placed a low priority on construction of an island railway, as it had low traffic potential and would duplicate an existing steamer service.

Port Alberni Station is today only used by the heritage Alberni Pacific Railway

In 1874 British Columbia threatened to withdraw from Confederation and Premier Walkem petitioned the Queen for relief from these delays. Then Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie and Walkem agreed to accept arbitration of the dispute by the Earl of Carnarvon, the Colonial Secretary. His award, given 17 November 1874 gave an extension of time for the construction and required that a railway be built from Esquimalt to Nanaimo. Despite the promises of both parties to be bound by his ruling, the federal government bill approving the award failed in the Senate of Canada. British Columbians were indignant and withdrawal from Confederation was raised again.

In 1879 Lord Dufferin was sent to BC to assess the situation. His efforts produced no resolution. Governor General Dufferin arriving in Victoria had to take an alternate route rather than pass below an arch across the main street that bore a banner reading "Carnarvon Terms or Separation."[3] Walkem, although no longer premier, was sent to Ottawa to press for the Esquimalt to Nanaimo section. This issue was pressed again in 1880 by Amor de Cosmos and when that failed another petition to London was presented in 1881.

The father of Canadian Confederation Sir John A. Macdonald in the House of Commons in 1881 gave a speech on the CPR and criticized Alexander Mackenzie for tinkering with the preconditions of British Columbia and Vancouver Island uniting with Canada.[4] The old chieftain said, "Both the Government of which I was the head and the Government of which he was the head were bound by the original resolutions." Macdonald said,"It was admitted that it was a sacred obligation; it was admitted that there was a treaty made with British Columbia, with the people and the Government of British Columbia, and not only was it an agreement and a solemn bargain made between Canada and British Columbia, but it was formally sanctioned by Her Majesty's Government. It was a matter of Colonial policy and Imperial policy in England that the road should be constructed."[5]

The Land Grants[edit]

Coal Baron Robert Dunsmuir[edit]

Robert Dunsmuir, the Nanaimo coal baron and a member of the provincial legislature, was interested in owning the railway project and in the province's coal reserves. The fact that Dunsmuir was a member of the provincial government that was making the deal aroused some suspicion about corruption. Dunsmuir and three partners (Charles Crocker, Collis P. Huntington and Leland Stanford of California) incorporated the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway with Dunsmuir president and owner of one half of the shares. The company estimated that it would cost $1.5 million to construct. Dunsmuir planned to integrate the railway with the systems being built in Washington and Oregon with a ferry link from Victoria.

Lewis M. Clement

The first Prime Minister gave British Columbia the choice of Dunsmuir or Lewis M. Clement[6] of San Francisco, Chief Engineer of the Western Division of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, for the contract. Dusmuir travelled to Ottawa in 1882 with letters of introduction from John Hamilton Gray, one of the Fathers of Confederation and Joseph Trutch the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, both men in favour with Macdonald.[7] After a visit to Ottawa, to present himself directly for this project, Dunsmuir went off to Scotland. While in Scotland, Dunsmuir received the news that the provincial government had chosen the Vancouver Land and Railway Company controlled by Clement for the job. Dunsmuir was surprised that Clement would take the contract without a cash grant in addition to the land and commit to building the railway to Seymour Narrows, near Campbell River.[8] When Clement and his company failed to come up with the necessary financial security, Macdonald quickly moved to accept Dunsmuir's terms.

Settler Rights[edit]

The court ruled that this grant did not entitle the railway to dispossess existing settlers, the company applied for compensation and received a further grant of 86,763 acres (35,112 ha) between Crown Mountain and Seymour Narrows. In 1883, the British Columbia provincial government signed a contract with Dunsmuir to build a railway between Esquimalt and Nanaimo in exchange for the same grant of land that Clement had negotiated, amounting to 800,000 acres (323,749 ha) plus a cash grant of $750,000 from the federal government. Based on an average value of $10 per acre for the land the E&N received, it cost the government $626,660 per mile to build the railway, which, when complete, was in private hands. The railway was given a massive amount of old-growth forests.[9] Proceeds from the land grants helped build Craigdarroch Castle. The grant amounted to almost 10% of Vancouver Island and included mineral rights and all known coal deposits. All the land grants to the E&N railroad from 1884 to 1925 amounted to 20% of Vancouver Island.[10] The company was to receive a grant with the following boundaries:

On the south by a straight line drawn from the head of Saanich Inlet to Muir Creek, on the Straits of Fuca:
On the west, by a straight line drawn from Muir Creek, aforesaid, to Crown Mountain:
On the north, by a straight line drawn from Crown Mountain to Seymour Narrows: and
On the east, by the coast line of Vancouver Island to the point of commencement.[11]

Construction[edit]

The bridge over Niagara Creek Canyon. This cantilever suspension bridge was built in England in 1883 and first used in Canada crossing the Fraser River at Cisco where it became known as the Cisco Bridge. It was moved to Vancouver Island for the present crossing in 1910.

The last spike was gold and the hammer was silver.[12] On 13 August 1886, the last spike was driven at Cliffside, about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Victoria. Construction of the island railway took three and a half years. Prime Minister Macdonald drove the last spike, during his only visit to British Columbia. The railway was extended to Dunsmuir's mine at Wellington in 1887, and into Victoria in 1888. It was extended west to Port Alberni in 1911, west to Lake Cowichan in 1912, and north to Courtenay in 1914. The E&N Railway was originally to have been built all the way to Campbell River, but that plan fell through due to the outbreak of World War I.

The present day bridge 17 km (11 mi) north of Victoria, BC, over Niagara Creek Canyon (48°28′57″N 123°33′27″W / 48.4825°N 123.5574°W / 48.4825; -123.5574), formerly crossed the Fraser River at Cisco, BC, and was moved here 300 km (190 mi) ca.1910. The cantilever suspension bridge was pre-fabricated in England in 1883 and shipped to Canada.[13] It replaced the original wooden trestle bridge, which was damaged in a washout on 12 November 1886.[14]

The CPR years[edit]

In 1905, Robert Dunsmuir’s son James sold the E&N Railway to the Canadian Pacific Railway. The CPR build the railroad to Lake Cowichan, Port Alberni, Parksville, Qualicum Beach, and Courtenay. At the peak, the railroad had 45 stations on the main line, and 36 stations on the Cowichan line, and 8 on the Port Alberni line.[15]

Between 1905 and 1999, the E&N Railway was owned and operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Via Rail took over operation of CPR's passenger train service, called The Malahat, in 1978, while CPR demarketed its freight operation, claiming that freight traffic was declining. In 1996, CPR reorganized the E&N as an "internal short line" named E&N Railfreight while the railbarge operations were sold to Seaspan Intermodal. In early 1999, shortline operator RailAmerica purchased the route from Nanaimo to Port Alberni, and leased the balance of the line. At that time approximately 8,500 carloads of forest and paper products, minerals, and chemicals were transported by the Southern Vancouver Island Railway each year.

RailAmerica[edit]

A Budd RDC train operated by Via Rail at Qualicum Beach

In 1998, CPR sold the middle part of the corridor to RailAmerica. Despite the purchase by RailAmerica, freight traffic continued to decline and the future of the E&N was still in doubt. RailAmerica sought a sale for its acquisition due to unprofitably and deferred maintenance issues. Restrictions from Canadian Pacific on the lease/sale agreement, and major reconstruction of Highway 1 from Victoria to Nanaimo and the new freeway from Nanaimo to Campbell River, led to reduced driving times for the full length of the E&N. This development also affected the privately owned rail line, which did not have the benefit of the provincial subsidies accorded to its competing highways. Freight traffic dropped to about 2000 carloads a year after the loss of their largest freight customer, a Catalyst Paper pulp mill in Port Alberni. RailAmerica ceased to operate the E&N on 30 June 2006, with the Washington Group's Southern Railway of British Columbia taking over operations the following day under the name Southern Railway of Vancouver Island.

Pacific Wilderness tourist train[edit]

In the summers of 2000 and 2001 a train consisting of a few older coach cars, pulled by GP20 diesels, traveled from Victoria to the peak of Malahat before returning to Victoria. The train made the trip three times a day in 2000, and twice a day in 2001. The tourist operation was called the Pacific Wilderness Railway. After ridership collapsed halfway through the 2001 tourist season, the operation was shut down.[16]

Via Rail[edit]

In 1978, Via Rail assumed operational responsibility for the E&N Railway passenger service. Post ICF ownership, the rail operator agreement has the private compay Southern Railway operate the daily inter-city passenger service from Victoria to Courtenay on behalf of Via Rail. Train tickets had to be purchased three days in advance to avoid an increase in the cost of the fare. In 2011, due to the disrepair of the railroad, Via Rail and Southern Railway suspended indefinitely the Dayliner passenger service, the Victoria – Courtenay train. The train had scheduled stops at Duncan, Nanaimo, and Parksville, with many other flag stops (stops on request) along the way. VIA and Southern Railway did offer a bus service for a several months after the closure, but the service was discontinued August 7, 2011. VIA's bus tickets had to be bought three days in advance and fewer than ten people a day used their temporary bus service.[17] The VIA passenger service used Budd-built Rail Diesel Cars.

Names of island railroad[edit]

Until 1996, it was called the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway (which it is still called by people living on the Island). It then spent three years as E & N Railfreight, an internal short line within then owner Canadian Pacific Railway. Operations were then sold to RailAmerica. The RailAmerica subsidiary was named E&N Railway Co (1998) Ltd. (reporting mark ENR), thus maintaining the historic name associations for the Vancouver Island line.

Island Corridor Foundation[edit]

A Via Rail RDC in Nanaimo

Tax gift[edit]

The not for profit Island Corridor Foundation is a partnership between the Cowichan Tribes and local governments along the SVI line. After years of work and negotiations, the ICF came to agreements with both the Canadian Pacific Railway and Rail Americia, to hand over its Island rail assets to the foundation for tax credits.[18]

In February 2006, the Canadian Pacific Railway donated its 234 km (145 miles) portion of the SVI right-of-way, which averages 30.48 m (100 ft) in width between Victoria and Courtenay, to the Island Corridor Foundation. The donation tax credit exchange was estimated to be valued at $236(C) million and encompasses 6.51 km2 (2.51 sq mi) of land, six historic railway stations and a number of trestles. In addition, CPR also supplied $2.3-million in "seed money" to the Foundation. Lands were also given that produce non-rail revenue generated by property leases and encroachments on the line.[19]

On 22 March 2006, RailAmerica donated ownership of the Port Alberni to Nanaimo portion of the SVI to the Island Corridor Foundation.

No trespassing policy[edit]

More and more people are starting to walk, hike and use off road vehicles on the right of way[20] Railway and ICF officials are asking people to stay off the tracks for their own safety.

Freight business[edit]

ICF chose Southern Railway of Vancouver Island (SVI) to operate the Island railway on Vancouver Island, after ICF’s acquisition of the railroad.[21] The operator agreement started on July 1, 2006. In January 2010, the Southern Railway of British Columbia new train ferry terminal started operating in the Fraser River on Annacis Island shipping to Nanaimo via the Seaspan train ferry. The new train marine terminal was built with the help of $4.6 million in federal funding and cost $11 million. It increases the mainland's capacity and speed to load and unload railcar barges from the island.[22]

The amount of freight traffic in 2008 and 2009 was about 1,000 cars per year. According to the Rule of 100,[23] a generally accepted economic formula for short-line railways, a minimum of 100 freight cars per mile a year is required before a line is profitable due to depreciation accounting. The old E&N route currently averages about 6.6 cars per mile. The ICF has estimated there is a potential business of 22,000 rail cars of freight each year on Vancouver Island.

An ICF development strategies report estimated that 35,000 to 40,000 carloads per year, as the amount of business that would be required to bear the full capital cost of upgrading the railroad and maintain operations on a sustainable basis. If the capital costs of upgrading the railway are excluded, the business of 8,000 carloads per year would be required to pay for basic operating and maintenance costs. The most significant potential revenue is the Raven coal mine (located west of Fanny Bay) needing up to 10,000 carloads per year. The foundation report noted the market potential for sourcing of aggregates like gravel for the Victoria market from alternative reserves up-Island. However, this market would be extremely competitive due to the availability of shipments of aggregate by barge from Lehigh’s facility in Sechelt and the new Johnson Street Bridge providing barge access to downtown Victoria.[24]

SVI Rail operator of railway[edit]

The Washington company Southern Railway of Vancouver Island (SVI) is the operating railroad for Vancouver Island freight and passenger services, and works under a haulage arrangement with Southern Railway of British Columbia(SRY). SVI provides rail freight services to various customers on Vancouver Island railroad offering connections to the continental railway network. It also operates daily intercity passenger service from Victoria to Courtenay by arrangements with Via Rail Canada. SVI employs 22 people and has a wage bill of 1.25 million a year, as well as spending another 1 million for rail operations as part of the Island economy.[25]

Rail Line Closure & Re-Opening[edit]

Alberni Pacific excursion train, June 2013

Beginning March 18, 2011 the rail line between Victoria and Courtenay was closed indefinitely, due to safety concerns about the poor condition of the tracks. In April 2012 the Federal Government announced that it would match a $7.5 Million grant offered by the BC Provincial Government, providing the required $15 Million for basic repairs and upgrades to reopen the rail line. The line was expected to reopen, and rail services re-commence in 2013, as early the spring,[26] but failed negotiations between the Island Corridor Foundation and Via Rail have prevented any upgrades from taking place and as of fall 2013, the future of the line remains unclear.[27]

Bike path beside E&N in Victoria[edit]

A bike path is being built beside the E&N tracks from Vic West to Six Mile, while allowing rail service to continue. In April 2007 the Island Corridor Foundation agreed to lease its land in Greater Victoria to the CRD for the development of the bike trail.[28]

Rapid transit on E&N in Victoria[edit]

In 1996 a BC Transit report,[29] listed an end to end travel time of 19 minutes, would require, renewing the track and enhancing road crossing, to travel 13.3 km (8.3 miles) to arrive over the bridge into downtown Victoria from Station St. Langford. The travel time was 24 minutes, using the existing track, including stops, and restricting the speed to 25kph (16 mph) due to the condition of the railway and street crossings.

In 2008 a report,[30] by the BC Ministry of Transportation, has the travel time at 36 minutes, using the existing track, and having a train traveling a further distance of 17.2 km (10.7 mi) from West Langford. This includes six stops and stopping at each station for half a minute. The speed varies from 8 to 65 kph (5 to 40  mph).

Sources[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ E&N rail service doomed without huge injection of government cash says operators
  2. ^ MacLachlin, p12-16
  3. ^ Carnarvon Terms - KnowBC - the leading source of BC information
  4. ^ Read the ebook A history; British Columbia by R. E. (R. Edward) Gosnell
  5. ^ http://canadachannel.ca/HCO/index.php/John_A._Macdonald,_Speech_on_the_CPR
  6. ^ Lewis M. Clement
  7. ^ Reksten, p 58.
  8. ^ Reksten p 59.
  9. ^ MacLachlin, p 55.
  10. ^ Home | LTSA
  11. ^ MacLachlin, p 15.
  12. ^ The Last Spike
  13. ^ Turner, R. D.: West of the Great Divide, page 74.
  14. ^ Cathedral Grove | British Columbia | Habitat Desecration
  15. ^ http://www.islandrail.ca/archives/history-of-the-en-railway/
  16. ^ "Pacific Wilderness". Retrieved 2012-07-10. 
  17. ^ VIA Rail Canada Inc. | Travel Advisory - Temporary Bus Replacing VIA's Victoria to Courtenay Train Service To Make Last Trip August 7
  18. ^ http://www.islandrail.ca/the-owner/en-line-donated-to-islanders/
  19. ^ http://www.islandrail.ca/land-inquiries/
  20. ^ Parksville Qualicum News - Railway officials, police, warn pedestrians - Mobile Edition
  21. ^ http://www.islandrail.ca/freight/fact-sheets/the-operator/
  22. ^ Terminal aids Island rail system
  23. ^ Blanchard Co Rule of 100
  24. ^ http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/publications/reports_and_studies/Evaluation_ENRailway/Final_Report/Phase_2-Development_Strategies.pdf
  25. ^ http://www.sryraillink.com/vancouver_isl_service.htm
  26. ^ "Passengers could be riding the E&N Railway as early as next spring". Victoria Times Colonist. 
  27. ^ "Via Rail says it has no money to boost E&N service upon return to Vancouver Island". Times Colonist. May 30, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
  28. ^ Parks - E&N Rail Trail Project
  29. ^ http://www.llbc.leg.bc.ca/public/pubdocs/bcdocs/295688/vic_ssr648.pdf
  30. ^ http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/publications/reports_and_studies/Evaluation_ENRailway/Final_Report/TP-EandN_Commuter_Rail_Analysis.pdf

External links[edit]

Southern Railway of Vancouver Island (E&N) Malahat
0 km Victoria BC
6 km Esquimalt
10 km Palmer (Ft Victoria)
13 km Langford
Tunnel50m
32 km Malahat
40 km Cliffside
42 km Strathcona Lodge
45 km Shawnigan
50 km Cobble Hill
55 km Hillbank
58 km Cowichan
64 km Duncan
68 km Hayward (Drinkwater Road)
82 km Chemainus
93 km Ladysmith
105 km Cassidy
108 km South Wellington
111 km Starks
117 km Nanaimo
124 km Wellington
142 km Nanoose Bay
153 km Parksville(Junction with the Port Alberni branch line)
164 km Qualicum Beach
177 km Dunsmuir
190 km Deep Bay (Gainsburg Road)
203 km Buckley Bay
211 km Union Bay
225 km Courtenay BC