Essex County, New Jersey

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Essex County, New Jersey
South Mountain View.jpg
Seal of Essex County, New Jersey
Seal
Map of New Jersey highlighting Essex County
Location in the state of New Jersey
Map of the United States highlighting New Jersey
New Jersey's location in the U.S.
Founded March 7, 1683[1]
Named for Essex County, England
Seat Newark[2]
Largest city Newark
Area
 • Total 129.631 sq mi (336 km2)
 • Land 126.212 sq mi (327 km2)
 • Water 3.419 sq mi (9 km2), 2.64%
Population
 • (2010) 783,969[3]
 • Density 6,211.5/sq mi (2,398/km²)
Congressional districts 7th, 8th, 10th, 11th
Website www.essex-countynj.org
South Mountain Reservation

Essex County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 783,969,[3] a decrease of 1.2% (9,664 fewer residents) from the 793,633 enumerated in the 2000 Census,[4] making it the third-most populous county in the state, having dropped behind Middlesex County, and one of only two counties in the state to see a decline in population during the decade (Cape May County being the other).[5][6] Its county seat is Newark.[7][2] It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. The Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 94th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States (and the seventh-highest in New Jersey) as of 2009.[8]

Overview[edit]

Township of Millburn

The county is named after Essex, a county in the East of England.[9] Based on data from the 2010 census, Essex County is the 14th-most densely populated county in the United States, and was ranked second in the state after Hudson County (which ranked sixth in the nation at 13,731.4 per square mile).[10]

Newark, with a population density of 11,458.3 people/square mile, is the largest municipality in the county both in terms of land area (24.19 square miles) and population (277,140), while Caldwell is the smallest in terms of land area (1.17 square miles) and Essex Fells has the smallest population (2,113).[11] Many of the county's smallest municipalities have population densities that are comparable to those of many big cities, and are well above the state's average which in turn is the highest in the nation.

Like many of the counties of Northern New Jersey near New York City — which tend to have sharp divides between relatively rich suburban neighborhoods and less wealthy, more densely populated cities nearby — the eastern region of Essex County tends to be poorer and more urbanized, while the western parts tend to be more affluent and suburban.

Eastern Essex This wide area has significant pockets of high population, high building density, high poverty and high crime rates. Within this general area however are many stable, mixed and middle-income areas of diverse populations. For example, north and west sides of Newark have well-kept suburban areas such as Vailsburg, Newark, New Jersey and Forest Hill, Newark, New Jersey. The east side of Newark is the Ironbound, a working-class Brazilian and Portuguese community. East Orange has the Presidential Estate neighborhood full of large one family homes. Belleville and Bloomfield are suburbs with historic Italian communities that, in spite of retaining a core Italian-American population, now have many immigrants from Latin America and Asia. As of the 2000 Census, 36% of Nutley residents indicated that they were of Italian ancestry, the 12th-highest of any municipality in the nation and third-highest in New Jersey.[12]

Beginning at about the turn of the century, this region led the state in the rebuilding and rehab of its housing stock. In the 2000s, Newark led the state in the issuance of building permits. Many reasons were cited: city-wide incentives to encourage construction development, an improving local economy, the rising demand of low-cost housing so close to Manhattan. Newark has since then become one of the fastest growing cities in the entire Northeast.[13][14] and reported a gain in median income and drop in poverty rate.[15] This is a turnaround from the deterioration and abandonment experienced in the post-riot 1970s, 1980s and early part of the 1990s.

Crime in this part of the county has traditionally been among the highest in the state and the country as well, but recently has also seen significant declines, mirroring its large neighbor to the east, New York City.[16] By 2006, crime in Newark had fallen 60% over 10 years to its lowest levels in 40 years.[17][18] Neighboring East Orange has seen crime fall more recently, dropping 50% in the three years (2005 to 2007).[19] While homicide rates have fallen in Newark and East Orange in recent years, homicide rates in Newark, Irvington, East Orange, and Orange remain stubbornly high. In 2008, Newark had 67 homicides, down from 105 in 2007 and the record of 161 murders set in 1981.[16][20]

In contrast, Western Essex tends to be more suburban and affluent. Within this region are some of the most diverse and racially integrated municipalities in the state and nation, including Montclair, West Orange, South Orange and Maplewood. As well, many neighborhoods are well-known magnets for New Yorkers such as Glen Ridge, Montclair, Verona and The Oranges. The communities of Livingston, Roseland, South Orange, Maplewood, Millburn, North Caldwell, and Essex Fells are some of the wealthiest towns in the county. Short Hills, South Orange, and Livingston are regionally well known as affluent Jewish suburbs. Livingston also has a burgeoning Taiwanese-American population, many of whom are highly educated white collar professionals with Ivy League degrees. Short Hills has a popular upscale shopping mall, the Short Hills Mall located near affluent Morris and Union counties.

As the poorest place in the county, Newark has a median household income of $26,913 and a per capita income of $13,009; at the other extreme, Essex Fells, one of the wealthier places in the county and the 4th wealthiest municipality in the state, has a median household income of $148,173 and a per capita income of $77,434. Newark and Essex Fells are only 10 miles (16 km) apart.

While many residents commute to New York City, Organon International, Anheuser-Busch, Automatic Data Processing, CIT Group, Hoffmann-LaRoche, W. W. Grainger, Dun & Bradstreet and Prudential have large facilities in Essex County or are headquartered there, and there are numerous factories and large office parks scattered throughout.

Essex County was the first county in the country to create a county park system (Essex County Park System), to ensure that it did not lose all its land to development.[21]

The various municipalities of the county, especially Newark, the Oranges, and the Caldwells were seen on episodes of the HBO mob drama The Sopranos, which was set in North Caldwell.[22]

The county is also home to Newark Liberty International Airport, Essex County Airport, and Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal.

History[edit]

Essex Troop, New Jersey National Guard
Essex County Hall of Records
The Thomas Edison factory in West Orange.

Essex was originally formed as one of four administrative districts within the very brief reign of East Jersey in 1675, together with Bergen, Middlesex and Monmouth Counties. Essex County was formed within East Jersey on March 7, 1683.[1] The county was named in honor the English county of Kingdom of Essex, one of the historical kingdoms of England.

Portions of Essex were taken in 1741 and transferred to Somerset County. In 1837, Passaic County was formed from portions of Essex and Bergen County. In 1857, Union County was created from parts of Essex County.[1]

Government[edit]

Essex County is governed by a County Executive and a nine-member Board of Chosen Freeholders, who administer all county business. The County Executive is elected by a direct vote of the electorate. Nine freeholders are elected to serve three-year concurrent terms of office. Five of the freeholders represent districts; four are elected from the county on an at-large basis. The Freeholder President and Vice-President serve one-year terms.[23] The executive and all freeholders are serving terms that end in 2014.[24]

As of 2013, Essex County's County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr.[25] Essex County's Freeholders are:[24][26]

  • Blonnie R. Watson – Freeholder President/ At-Large (Newark)[27]
  • Patricia Sebold – Freeholder Vice-President/ At-Large (Livingston)[28]
  • Rufus I. Johnson – Freeholder-At-Large (Newark)[29]
  • Gerald W. Owens – Freeholder-At-Large (South Orange), took office in December 2012 to fill a vacant seat[30]
  • Rolando Bobadilla – Freeholder District 1, covering Newark's North, East, parts of Central & West Wards (Newark)[31]
  • D. Bilal Beasley – Freeholder District 2, covering Newark (South Ward, Parts of West Ward), Irvington and Maplewood (Irvington)[32]
  • Carol Y. Clark – Freeholder District 3, covering Newark: Parts of West & Central Wards; East Orange Wards 1-5, Orange and South Orange (East Orange, New Jersey)[33]
  • Leonard Luciano – Freeholder District 4, covering Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange (West Caldwell)[34]
  • Brendan W. Gill - Freeholder District 5, covering Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair, Nutley (Nutley)[35]

Essex County's constitutional officers are County clerk Christopher J. Durkin (2015), Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (D, 2015) and Surrogate Thomas N. Stephen, II (2016).[24][36]

Four federal Congressional Districts cover the county, including portions of the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th Districts.[37][38] New Jersey's Seventh Congressional District is represented by Leonard Lance (R, Clinton Township).[39] New Jersey's Eighth Congressional District is represented by Albio Sires (D, West New York).[40] New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne, Jr. (D, Newark).[41] New Jersey's Eleventh Congressional District is represented by Rodney Frelinghuysen (R, Harding Township).[42]

The county is part of the 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th, 34th and 40th Districts in the New Jersey Legislature.[43]

Politics[edit]

In presidential elections, the county has long been Democratic and was the only county in the state to be won by Walter Mondale in 1984.[44] In the 2004 U.S. Presidential election, John Kerry carried the county by a 41.6% margin over George W. Bush, the highest winning margin in any county in New Jersey, with Kerry carrying the state by 6.7% over Bush.[45] In each of the last four elections the Democratic candidate received 69% or more of the county's vote.[46]

Law enforcement[edit]

Law enforcement at the county level is provided by the Essex County Prosecutor's Office and the Essex County Sheriff's Office. The Essex County Police was completely absorbed by the sheriff's office by 2007. The Essex County College Police patrol the Essex County College Campus and satellite locations.

Higher education[edit]

Essex County has five public and five private institutions. It formerly had another private college that closed in 1995.

Public[edit]

Private[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Essex County is traversed by a number of highways including:

There are also many buses that operate around the county, with New Jersey Transit headquarters located just behind Newark Penn Station, a transit hub in the eastern part of the county. NJ Transit's Northeast Corridor, New Jersey Coast Line, Raritan Valley Line, Montclair Boonton and Morris and Essex Lines all pass through Newark Penn Station and Newark Broad Street Station as well as other stations throughout the county, with most terminating or offering connections to New York Penn Station and Philadelphia's 30th Street Station. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson and Newark Light Rail also operate out of Newark Penn Station as well as many bus lines that form a web network around the county.

Amtrak also offers services on the Acela Express, Cardinal, Carolinian, Crescent, Keystone Service, Palmetto, Pennsylvanian, Northeast Regional, Silver Star, Silver Meteor and Vermonter via Newark Penn Station.

Newark Liberty International Airport is located in the Southeast section of the county and is one of the three New York Metropolitan airports operated by Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal is a major component of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Located on the Newark Bay it serves as the principal container ship facility for goods entering and leaving New York-Newark metropolitan area, and the northeastern quadrant of North America. It consists of two components – Port Newark and the Elizabeth Marine Terminal (sometimes called "Port Elizabeth") – which exist side-by-side and are run conjointly by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The facility is located within the boundaries of the two cities of Newark and Elizabeth, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike and Newark Liberty International Airport.

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county had a total area of 129.631 square miles (335.74 km2), of which 126.212 square miles (326.89 km2) of it (97.4%) was land and 3.419 square miles (8.86 km2) of it (2.6%) was water.[11][47]

The county rises from generally flat in the east to the twin ridges of the Watchung Mountains in the western half, beyond which the land lowers again into the Passaic River valley.

The highest elevation is found at four areas scattered between Verona, North Caldwell and Cedar Grove, reaching 660 feet (200 m) above sea level.[48] The lowest point is sea level, at Newark Bay.

Climate[edit]

All of Essex County has a humid subtropical climate. However temperatures do vary in various locations. In Newark, Eastern Essex County, and Southern/Southeastern Essex County, temperatures are relatively cool to hot, even in the winter months. Western Essex County has similar temperatures to Eastern Essex, but the elevation increase within the Watchung Mountains allows for some minor differences. An example would be that in January on Interstate 280 it could be raining in East Orange. Heading west on 280 there is a large hill that elevates from 150 feet (46 m) to 650 feet (200 m), a 500 feet (150 m) difference. At the top of the hill it could be snowing because of the 3 to 4 degree temperature differences.

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 17,785
1800 22,269 25.2%
1810 25,984 16.7%
1820 30,793 18.5%
1830 41,911 36.1%
1840 44,621 * 6.5%
1850 73,950 65.7%
1860 98,877 * 33.7%
1870 143,839 45.5%
1880 189,929 32.0%
1890 256,098 34.8%
1900 359,053 40.2%
1910 512,886 42.8%
1920 652,089 27.1%
1930 833,513 27.8%
1940 837,340 0.5%
1950 905,949 8.2%
1960 923,545 1.9%
1970 932,526 1.0%
1980 851,304 −8.7%
1990 778,206 −8.6%
2000 793,633 2.0%
2010 783,969 −1.2%
Est. 2012 787,744 [49][50] 0.5%
Historical sources: 1790-1990[51]
1970-2010[6] 2000[4] 2010[3][52]
* = Lost territory in previous decade.[1]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 783,969 people, 283,712 households, and 189,236 families residing in the county. The population density was 6,211.5 per square mile (2,398.3 /km2). There were 312,954 housing units at an average density of 2,479.6 per square mile (957.4 /km2). The racial makeup of the county was 42.59% (333,868) White, 40.88% (320,479) Black or African American, 0.39% (3,056) Native American, 4.57% (35,789) Asian, 0.04% (286) Pacific Islander, 8.38% (65,687) from other races, and 3.16% (24,804) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 20.30% (159,117) of the population.[3]

There were 283,712 households of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.1% were married couples living together, 20.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.3% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.29.[3]

In the county, 24.9% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.4 years. For every 100 females there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.[3]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 793,633 people, 283,736 households, and 193,507 families residing in the county. The population density was 6,285 people per square mile (2,427/km²). There were 301,011 housing units at an average density of 2,384 per square mile (920/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 44.46% White, 41.24% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 3.71% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.88% from other races, and 3.42% from two or more races. 15.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[4][53] Among those residents listing their ancestry, 11.6% were of residents were Italian, 6.9% Irish and 5.0% West Indian ancestry according to Census 2000.[53][54]

There were 283,736 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.30% were married couples living together, 20.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.80% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.30.[4]

In the county the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, and 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 90.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.40 males.[4]

The median income for a household in the county was $44,944, and the median income for a family was $54,818. Males had a median income of $41,374 versus $32,052 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,943. About 12.8% of families and 15.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 12.2% of those age 65 or over.[53][55]

The county has a high Italian population, with significant percentages of residents (over 25%) in several communities, of the West Essex area and northeastern district, mostly in the northern half of the county, being of Italian descent. This includes the communities of Belleville (30.9%), Bloomfield (26.4%), Caldwell (26.3%), Cedar Grove (34.8%), Fairfield (45.8%), Nutley (44.5%), Roseland (38.7%), Verona (34.3%) and West Caldwell (35.2%).[56]

The county has a notable Jewish population, with 76,200 Jewish residents according to the 2002 results of the National Jewish Population Survey.[57]

Municipalities[edit]

Index map of Essex County Municipalities (click to see index key)

Municipalities in Essex County (with type of government and 2010 population in parentheses are):[11]

Parks[edit]

Essex county was the first county in the United States to have its own parks department.[58] It is called the Essex County Park System.

Climate and weather[edit]

Newark, New Jersey
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3.5
 
39
24
 
 
2.9
 
42
27
 
 
4.1
 
51
34
 
 
4.2
 
62
44
 
 
4
 
72
53
 
 
4
 
82
63
 
 
4.7
 
86
69
 
 
3.7
 
84
68
 
 
3.8
 
77
60
 
 
3.6
 
65
48
 
 
3.6
 
55
39
 
 
3.8
 
44
30
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[59]

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Newark have ranged from a low of 24 °F (−4 °C) in January to a high of 86 °F (30 °C) in July, although a record low of −14 °F (−26 °C) was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 105 °F (41 °C) was recorded in July 1993. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.99 inches (76 mm) in February to 4.76 inches (121 mm) in July.[59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 125. Accessed June 6, 2012.
  2. ^ a b Essex County, NJ, National Association of Counties. Accessed January 20, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f DP1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 21, 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e DP-1 - Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 6, 2012.
  5. ^ NJ Labor Market Views, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, March 15, 2011. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  6. ^ a b New Jersey: 2010 - Population and Housing Unit Counts; 2010 Census of Population and Housing at the Wayback Machine (archived July 31, 2013), p. 6, CPH-2-32. United States Census Bureau, August 2012, backed up by the Internet Archive as of July 31, 2013. Accessed October 3, 2013.
  7. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  8. ^ 250 Highest Per Capita Personal Incomes of the 3113 Counties in the United States, 2009 at the Wayback Machine (archived July 22, 2011), Bureau of Economic Analysis, backed uo by the Internet Archive as of July 22, 2011. Accessed September 9, 2012.
  9. ^ Kane, Joseph Nathan; and Aiken, Charles Curry. The American Counties: Origins of County Names, Dates of Creation, and Population Data, 1950-2000, p. 95. Scarecrow Press, 2005. ISBN 0810850362. Accessed January 21, 2013.
  10. ^ Staff. "Census 2010 data show population and diversity trends", USA Today. Accessed October 4, 2013. Click on "Population per Square Mile" to sort counties nationwide by descending population density."
  11. ^ a b c GCT-PH1: Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County -- County Subdivision and Place from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 6, 2012.
  12. ^ Italian Communities, EPodunk. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  13. ^ Roberts, Sam. "Biggest Urban Growth Is in South and West", June 28, 2007. Accessed November 13, 2007.
  14. ^ Census data for Newark, New Jersey, accessed November 14, 2006
  15. ^ Newark city, New Jersey – Fact Sheet – American FactFinder
  16. ^ a b Wang, Katie. "County reports largest drop is in violent crime", The Star-Ledger, October 17, 2007. Accessed November 13, 2007. "For the second year in a row, overall crime in Essex County dropped by 10 percent, according to the annual crime statistics released by the State Police yesterday. The county saw the biggest drops in violent crime in 2006, particularly in robberies and aggravated assaults. Those incidents dropped by 6 percent and 7 percent respectively."
  17. ^ Total Crime Rate for US Cities, 1995: Population 40,000+, accessed November 14, 2006
  18. ^ Crime in the Cities, New Jersey State Police. Accessed November 14, 2006
  19. ^ Jones, Richard G. "The Crime Rate Drops, and a City Credits Its Embrace of Surveillance Technology", The New York Times, May 29, 2007. Accessed November 11, 2007.
  20. ^ Lueck, Thomas J. "As Newark Mayor Readies Crime Fight, Toll Rises", The New York Times, January 8, 2007. Accessed October 6, 2007. "For all of 2006, the police said, Newark had 104 homicides, far below its record of 161 in 1981, but more than in any other year since 1995."
  21. ^ Accomando, Peter R. and Liebau, Michelle M. "Essex County park system celebrates 100 years of beauty and service", Parks & Recreation, March 1995. Accessed May 26, 2007. "This picturesque scheme amid the bustling cityscape of Newark is Branch Brook Park, the largest park in Essex County and the first county park in the United States."
  22. ^ Parrillo, Rosemary. " The Locations", The Star-Ledger, March 4, 2001. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  23. ^ Definition of a Freeholder, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 30, 2008.
  24. ^ a b c Essex County Elected Officials, Essex County Clerk, February 2012. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  25. ^ Essex County Executive, Essex County. Accessed June 6, 2012.
  26. ^ Essex County Freeholders, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  27. ^ Freeholder President / At Large, Blonnie R. Watson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  28. ^ Vice President / At Large, Patricia Sebold, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  29. ^ Freeholder At Large, Rufus I. Johnson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  30. ^ Freeholder At Large, Gerald W. Owens, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  31. ^ Freeholder District 1, Rolando Bobadilla, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  32. ^ Freeholder District 2, D. Bilal Beasley, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  33. ^ Freeholder District 3, Carol Y. Clark, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  34. ^ Freeholder District 4, Leonard M. Luciano, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  35. ^ Freeholder District 5, Brendan W. Gill, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  36. ^ Essex County 2012 General Election - Unofficial Results November 6, 2012, Essex County Clerk. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  37. ^ 2012 Congressional Districts by County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  38. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2011. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  39. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  40. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  41. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  42. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  43. ^ 2011 Legislative Districts by County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  44. ^ David Leip's Presidential Atlas (Maps for New Jersey by election)
  45. ^ New Jersey Presidential Election Returns by County 2004, Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University. Accessed August 31, 2008.
  46. ^ New Jersey: Presidential County Results - 2008, The New York Times. Accessed June 6, 2012.
  47. ^ Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: New Jersey Counties at the Wayback Machine (archived June 11, 2012), United States Census Bureau, Backed up by the Internet Archive as of June 11, 2012. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  48. ^ New Jersey County High Points, Peakbagger.com. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  49. ^ PEPANNRES: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012 - 2012 Population Estimates for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 14, 2013.
  50. ^ State & County QuickFacts for Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 14, 2013.
  51. ^ Forstall, Richard L. Population of states and counties of the United States: 1790 to 1990 from the Twenty-one Decennial Censuses, pp. 108-109. United States Census Bureau, March 1996. ISBN 9780934213486. Accessed October 3, 2013.
  52. ^ U.S. Census Bureau Delivers New Jersey's 2010 Census Population Totals, United States Census Bureau, February 3, 2011. Accessed June 6, 2012.
  53. ^ a b c DP-1 to DP-4 from Census 2000 for Essex County, New Jersey at the Wayback Machine (archived July 6, 2008), United States Census Bureau, backed up by the Internet Archive as of July 6, 2008. Accessed October 4, 2013.
  54. ^ DP-2 - Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data for Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 30, 2013.
  55. ^ DP-3 - Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000 from Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data for Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 30, 2013.
  56. ^ QT-P13 - Ancestry: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data for County Subdivisions in Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 30, 2013.
  57. ^ Jewish Population in the United States, 2002 at the Wayback Machine (archived February 13, 2006), National Jewish Population Survey. Accessed May 11, 2006.
  58. ^ Essex County parks history, Essex County, new jersey. Accessed August 23, 2007.
  59. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Newark, New Jersey". The Weather Channel. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°47′N 74°15′W / 40.79°N 74.25°W / 40.79; -74.25